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Bewise Inc. www.tool-tool.com Reference source from the internet.

U klasičnoj fizici vakuum je prazan prostor bez bilo kakve materije ili fizikalnih polja. U savremenoj kvantnoj teoriji polja vakuum je ispunjen kvantnim fluktuacijama.

Sama riječ vakuum je latinskog porijekla (od latinskog vacuus - prazan). Pritisak u vakuumu je mnogo niži od atmosferskog pritiska, i u idealnom slučaju teži pritisku od nula paskala. Najviši (najdublji) vakuum se nalazi u svemiru (10 − 14 Pa).

Njegova industrijska primjena započinje u 20-om vijeku, uvođenjem električne sijalice i vakuumske cijevi. Vakuum se može proizvesti tako što se iz nekog zatvorenog prostora pomoću takozvane vakuum-pumpe izvuče sav gas.

Osobine vakuuma i njegova primjena [uredi]

Kroz vakuum se prostiru svjetlost, čestice, čvrsta tijela, električno i magnetno polje ali ne i zvuk - za prostiranje zvuka potrebna je materija. Toplota se kroz vakuum prostire zračenjem (elektromagnetni talasi iz infracrvenog dijela spektra) ali ne i provođenjem. Provođenje toplote se odvija preko materijalnih nosilaca te je u prostoru niskog pritiska znatno slabije, otuda primjena vakuuma u termosima.

Vakuum se koristi u brojnim procesima i uređajima. Prva uobičajena primjena je bila u sijalicama sa vlaknom da se zaštiti volframovo vlakno od hemijske degradacije. Hemijska inertnost vakuuma se takođe koristi za zavarivanje elektronskim mlazom, za nabacivanje tankih slojeva isparavanjem, za suho nagrizanje u proizvodnji poluprovodnika, za nabacivanje optičkih slojeva, vakuumsko pakovanje itd. Smanjenje konvekcije (miješanja) poboljšava toplotnu izolaciju termos boca. Visoki vakuum potpomaže degaziranje što se koristi za sušenje zamrzavanjem i vakuumsku destilaciju. Osobina vakuuma da propušta elektrone bez rasijavanja dovela je do primjene u elektronskom mikroskopu, vakuumskim cijevima (prvi radio) i katodnim cijevima (prvi televizori). Uklanjanje trenja u vazduhu stvaranjem vakuuma koriti se u konstrukciji ultracentrifuga i deponovanje energije u zamajcima.
Nedovršeni članak Vakuum koji govori o fizici treba dopuniti. Dopunite ga prema pravilima Wikipedije.

歡迎來到Bewise Inc.的世界,首先恭喜您來到這接受新的資訊讓產業更有競爭力,我們是提供專業刀具製造商,應對客戶高品質的刀具需求,我們可以協助客戶滿足您對產業的不同要求,我們有能力達到非常卓越的客戶需求品質,這是現有相關技術無法比擬的,我們成功的滿足了各行各業的要求,包括:精密HSS DIN切削刀具協助客戶設計刀具流程DIN or JIS 鎢鋼切削刀具設計NAS986 NAS965 NAS897 NAS937orNAS907 航太切削刀具,NAS航太刀具設計超高硬度的切削刀具醫療配件刀具設計汽車業刀具設計電子產業鑽石刀具木工產業鑽石刀具等等。我們的產品涵蓋了從民生刀具到工業級的刀具設計;從微細刀具到大型刀具;從小型生產到大型量產;全自動整合;我們的技術可提供您連續生產的效能,我們整體的服務及卓越的技術,恭迎您親自體驗!!

BW Bewise Inc. Willy Chen willy@tool-tool.com bw@tool-tool.com www.tool-tool.com skype:willy_chen_bw mobile:0937-618-190 Head &Administration Office No.13,Shiang Shang 2nd St., West Chiu Taichung,Taiwan 40356 http://www.tool-tool..com / FAX:+886 4 2471 4839 N.Branch 5F,No.460,Fu Shin North Rd.,Taipei,Taiwan S.Branch No.24,Sec.1,Chia Pu East Rd.,Taipao City,Chiayi Hsien,Taiwan

Welcome to BW tool world! We are an experienced tool maker specialized in cutting tools. We focus on what you need and endeavor to research the best cutter to satisfy users demand. Our customers involve wide range of industries, like mold & die, aerospace, electronic, machinery, etc. We are professional expert in cutting field. We would like to solve every problem from you. Please feel free to contact us, its our pleasure to serve for you. BW product including: cutting toolaerospace tool .HSS DIN Cutting toolCarbide end millsCarbide cutting toolNAS Cutting toolNAS986 NAS965 NAS897 NAS937orNAS907 Cutting Tools,Carbide end milldisc milling cutter,Aerospace cutting toolhss drillФрезерыCarbide drillHigh speed steelMilling cutterCVDD(Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamond )’PCBN (Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride) Core drillTapered end millsCVD Diamond Tools Inserts’PCD Edge-Beveling Cutter(Golden FingerPCD V-CutterPCD Wood toolsPCD Cutting toolsPCD Circular Saw BladePVDD End Millsdiamond tool Single Crystal Diamond Metric end millsMiniature end millsСпециальные режущие инструменты Пустотелое сверло Pilot reamerFraisesFresas con mango PCD (Polycrystalline diamond) ‘FreseElectronics cutterStep drillMetal cutting sawDouble margin drillGun barrelAngle milling cutterCarbide burrsCarbide tipped cutterChamfering toolIC card engraving cutterSide cutterNAS toolDIN or JIS toolSpecial toolMetal slitting sawsShell end millsSide and face milling cuttersSide chip clearance sawsLong end millsStub roughing end millsDovetail milling cuttersCarbide slot drillsCarbide torus cuttersAngel carbide end millsCarbide torus cuttersCarbide ball-nosed slot drillsMould cutterTool manufacturer.

Bewise Inc. www.tool-tool.com

ようこそBewise Inc.の世界へお越し下さいませ、先ず御目出度たいのは新たな

情報を受け取って頂き、もっと各産業に競争力プラス展開。

弊社は専門なエンドミルの製造メーカーで、客先に色んな分野のニーズ

豊富なパリエーションを満足させ、特にハイテク品質要求にサポート致します。

弊社は各領域に供給できる内容は:

(1)精密HSSエンドミルのR&D

(2)Carbide Cutting tools設計

(3)鎢鋼エンドミル設計

(4)航空エンドミル設計

(5)超高硬度エンドミル

(6)ダイヤモンドエンドミル

(7)医療用品エンドミル設計

(8)自動車部品&材料加工向けエンドミル設計

弊社の製品の供給調達機能は:

(1)生活産業~ハイテク工業までのエンドミル設計

(2)ミクロエンドミル~大型エンドミル供給

(3)小Lot生産~大量発注対応供給

(4)オートメーション整備調達

(5)スポット対応~流れ生産対応

弊社の全般供給体制及び技術自慢の総合専門製造メーカーに貴方のご体験を御待ちしております。

BW специализируется в научных исследованиях и разработках, и снабжаем самым высокотехнологичным карбидовым материалом для поставки режущих / фрезеровочных инструментов для почвы, воздушного пространства и электронной индустрии. В нашу основную продукцию входит твердый карбид / быстрорежущая сталь, а также двигатели, микроэлектрические дрели, IC картонорезальные машины, фрезы для гравирования, режущие пилы, фрезеры-расширители, фрезеры-расширители с резцом, дрели, резаки форм для шлицевого вала / звездочки роликовой цепи, и специальные нано инструменты. Пожалуйста, посетите сайт www.tool-tool.com для получения большей информации.

BW is specialized in R&D and sourcing the most advanced carbide material with high-tech coating to supply cutting / milling tool for mould & die, aero space and electronic industry. Our main products include solid carbide / HSS end mills, micro electronic drill, IC card cutter, engraving cutter, shell end mills, cutting saw, reamer, thread reamer, leading drill, involute gear cutter for spur wheel, rack and worm milling cutter, thread milling cutter, form cutters for spline shaft/roller chain sprocket, and special tool, with nano grade. Please visit our web www.tool-tool.com for more info.

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Bewise Inc. www.tool-tool.com Reference source from the internet.

Във физиката вакуум е отсъствието на вещество в определен обем от пространството. Думата идва от латински - vacuum (pl. vacua) и означава празно пространство. Колкото и да е 'празно' едно пространство обаче, абсолютен вакуум няма, затова се говори за различни степени на вакуум.

В техниката вакуум е всяка област, в която налягането е по-ниско от атмосферното налягане. Инженерите измерват степента на вакуум с единици за налягане. В системата SI единицата е паскал (съкратено Pa), но по-често вакуумът се измерва в милиметри живачен стълб (mmHg) или torr, като 1 mmHg или 1 torr е равен на 133,3223684 Ра. Често се използват и барометрични единици или проценти от атмосферното налягане.

Степени на вакуум [редактиране]

Оределени са следните степени на вакуум според налягането:

Нисък вакуум 760 до 25 Torr 100 до 3,3 kPa
Среден вакуум 25 до 1×10-3 Torr 3,3 kPa до 130 mPa
Висок вакуум 1×10-3 до 1×10-6 Torr 130 mPa до 130 µPa
Много висок вакуум 1×10-6 до 1×10-9 Torr 130 µPa до 130 nPa
Ултрависок вакуум 1×10-9 Torr и по-малко 130 nPa и по-малко

Идеален и частичен вакуум [редактиране]

Идеален вакуум е понятие, което се използва във физиката, но не може да се постигне в лаборатория, нито пък в далечния Космос, където при налягане от 10−14 Pa или 10−16 torr има само няколко водородни атома на кубичен сантиметър.

В съвременните съоръжения се счита, че в затворено пространство (наричано обикновено вакуумна камера) има вакуум, ако налягането на газовете в него е по-ниско от атмосферното (760 Torr or 101 kPa), или е силно понижено, така че да протече някакъв технологичен процес.

Физиците използват и понятието частичен вакуум за описание на неидеален вакуум. Пълното характеризиране на физическото състояние тогава включва и други физични величини като температура.


Стойности на вакуума в различни практически случаи [редактиране]

С намаляване на газовото налягане расте средният свободен пробег на газовите молекули. Когато той надвиши размера на камерата, помпата, космическия кораб вече не важат предположенията на механиката на флуидите. Това състояние се нарича висок вакуум, и изучаването на потоците флуид в този режим се нарича газова динамика на частици.

В междупланетното и междузвездното пространство налягането на газа е незначително в сравнение със слънчевото налягане, слънчевия вятър и динамичното налягане, затова астрофизиците предпочитат да използват единици за плътност - частици на кубичен метър.

Създаване на вакуум [редактиране]

Най-лесният начин за създаване на изкуствен вакуум е да се разшири обема на един контейнер. Например човешките мускули разширяват гръдния кош при вдишване и създават частичен вакуум, при което външният въздух нахлува, за да изравни налягането. Чрез последователно изпомпване и изолиране на един контейнер е възможно от една камера с фиксиран обем да се изтегли въздухът или друг газ подобно на изсмукването на напитка със сламка. Това е принципът на действие на повечето механични вакуумни помпи. Вътре в помпата има малка кухина, чийто обем се разширява механично и налягането в нея намалява. Поради създадената разлика в наляганията известна част от газа в камерата за изпомпване навлиза в кухината, след което връзката с камерата се затваря, кухината се отваря към атмосферата и обемът и отново се намалява.

歡迎來到Bewise Inc.的世界,首先恭喜您來到這接受新的資訊讓產業更有競爭力,我們是提供專業刀具製造商,應對客戶高品質的刀具需求,我們可以協助客戶滿足您對產業的不同要求,我們有能力達到非常卓越的客戶需求品質,這是現有相關技術無法比擬的,我們成功的滿足了各行各業的要求,包括:精密HSS DIN切削刀具協助客戶設計刀具流程DIN or JIS 鎢鋼切削刀具設計NAS986 NAS965 NAS897 NAS937orNAS907 航太切削刀具,NAS航太刀具設計超高硬度的切削刀具醫療配件刀具設計汽車業刀具設計電子產業鑽石刀具木工產業鑽石刀具等等。我們的產品涵蓋了從民生刀具到工業級的刀具設計;從微細刀具到大型刀具;從小型生產到大型量產;全自動整合;我們的技術可提供您連續生產的效能,我們整體的服務及卓越的技術,恭迎您親自體驗!!

BW Bewise Inc. Willy Chen willy@tool-tool.com bw@tool-tool.com www.tool-tool.com skype:willy_chen_bw mobile:0937-618-190 Head &Administration Office No.13,Shiang Shang 2nd St., West Chiu Taichung,Taiwan 40356 http://www.tool-tool..com / FAX:+886 4 2471 4839 N.Branch 5F,No.460,Fu Shin North Rd.,Taipei,Taiwan S.Branch No.24,Sec.1,Chia Pu East Rd.,Taipao City,Chiayi Hsien,Taiwan

Welcome to BW tool world! We are an experienced tool maker specialized in cutting tools. We focus on what you need and endeavor to research the best cutter to satisfy users demand. Our customers involve wide range of industries, like mold & die, aerospace, electronic, machinery, etc. We are professional expert in cutting field. We would like to solve every problem from you. Please feel free to contact us, its our pleasure to serve for you. BW product including: cutting toolaerospace tool .HSS DIN Cutting toolCarbide end millsCarbide cutting toolNAS Cutting toolNAS986 NAS965 NAS897 NAS937orNAS907 Cutting Tools,Carbide end milldisc milling cutter,Aerospace cutting toolhss drillФрезерыCarbide drillHigh speed steelMilling cutterCVDD(Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamond )’PCBN (Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride) Core drillTapered end millsCVD Diamond Tools Inserts’PCD Edge-Beveling Cutter(Golden FingerPCD V-CutterPCD Wood toolsPCD Cutting toolsPCD Circular Saw BladePVDD End Millsdiamond tool Single Crystal Diamond Metric end millsMiniature end millsСпециальные режущие инструменты Пустотелое сверло Pilot reamerFraisesFresas con mango PCD (Polycrystalline diamond) ‘FreseElectronics cutterStep drillMetal cutting sawDouble margin drillGun barrelAngle milling cutterCarbide burrsCarbide tipped cutterChamfering toolIC card engraving cutterSide cutterNAS toolDIN or JIS toolSpecial toolMetal slitting sawsShell end millsSide and face milling cuttersSide chip clearance sawsLong end millsStub roughing end millsDovetail milling cuttersCarbide slot drillsCarbide torus cuttersAngel carbide end millsCarbide torus cuttersCarbide ball-nosed slot drillsMould cutterTool manufacturer.

Bewise Inc. www.tool-tool.com

ようこそBewise Inc.の世界へお越し下さいませ、先ず御目出度たいのは新たな

情報を受け取って頂き、もっと各産業に競争力プラス展開。

弊社は専門なエンドミルの製造メーカーで、客先に色んな分野のニーズ

豊富なパリエーションを満足させ、特にハイテク品質要求にサポート致します。

弊社は各領域に供給できる内容は:

(1)精密HSSエンドミルのR&D

(2)Carbide Cutting tools設計

(3)鎢鋼エンドミル設計

(4)航空エンドミル設計

(5)超高硬度エンドミル

(6)ダイヤモンドエンドミル

(7)医療用品エンドミル設計

(8)自動車部品&材料加工向けエンドミル設計

弊社の製品の供給調達機能は:

(1)生活産業~ハイテク工業までのエンドミル設計

(2)ミクロエンドミル~大型エンドミル供給

(3)小Lot生産~大量発注対応供給

(4)オートメーション整備調達

(5)スポット対応~流れ生産対応

弊社の全般供給体制及び技術自慢の総合専門製造メーカーに貴方のご体験を御待ちしております。

BW специализируется в научных исследованиях и разработках, и снабжаем самым высокотехнологичным карбидовым материалом для поставки режущих / фрезеровочных инструментов для почвы, воздушного пространства и электронной индустрии. В нашу основную продукцию входит твердый карбид / быстрорежущая сталь, а также двигатели, микроэлектрические дрели, IC картонорезальные машины, фрезы для гравирования, режущие пилы, фрезеры-расширители, фрезеры-расширители с резцом, дрели, резаки форм для шлицевого вала / звездочки роликовой цепи, и специальные нано инструменты. Пожалуйста, посетите сайт www.tool-tool.com для получения большей информации.

BW is specialized in R&D and sourcing the most advanced carbide material with high-tech coating to supply cutting / milling tool for mould & die, aero space and electronic industry. Our main products include solid carbide / HSS end mills, micro electronic drill, IC card cutter, engraving cutter, shell end mills, cutting saw, reamer, thread reamer, leading drill, involute gear cutter for spur wheel, rack and worm milling cutter, thread milling cutter, form cutters for spline shaft/roller chain sprocket, and special tool, with nano grade. Please visit our web www.tool-tool.com for more info.

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Bewise Inc. www.tool-tool.com Reference source from the internet.

Вакуум (па-лацінску: vacuum — пустэча) — стан матэрыі ў адсутнасьці рэчыва. Таксама яго часам завуць беспаветранай прасторай, хоць гэта і няслушна.

Т.ж. Вакуум - стан разрэджанага газу, пры якім даўжыня вольнага прабегу малекул больш памераў пасудзіны, у якой знаходзіцца газ.

Варта адрозьніваць паняцьці фізычнага вакууму і тэхнічнага вакууму.

[рэдагаваць] Тэхнічны вакуум

Ужываецца звычайна да газу, які запаўняе абмежаваны аб'ём. У макраскапічных аб'ёмах ідэальны вакуум недасяжны на практыцы, паколькі пры канчатковай тэмпэратуры ўсе матэрыялы валодаюць ненулявой шчыльнасьцю насычаных пароў. Акрамя таго, шматлікія матэрыялы (у тым ліку тоўстыя мэталічныя, шкляныя і іншыя сьценкі пасудзін) прапускаюць газы. У мікраскапічных аб'ёмах, аднак, дасягненьне ідэальнага вакууму ў прынцыпе магчыма.

На практыцы моцна разрэджаны газ завуць тэхнічным вакуумам. Строга кажучы, тэхнічным вакуумам завуць газ у пасудзіне або трубаправодзе з ціскам ніжэй, чым у навакольнай атмасфэры. Паводле іншага азначэньня, калі малекулы, або атамы газу перастаюць сутыкацца адзін з адным, і газадынамічныя ўласьцівасьці зьмяняюцца вязкастнымі (пры ціску каля 1 Тор) кажуць аб дасягненьні нізкага вакууму. Звычайна нізкавакуумная помпа стаіць паміж атмасфэрным паветрам і высокавакуўмнай помпай, ствараючы папярэдняе разрэджаньне, таму нізкі вакуум часта завуць фарвакуум. Пры наступным паніжэньні ціску ў камэры, павялічваецца сярэдняя даўжыня вольнага прабегу λ малекул газу. Пры λ >> d, дзе d - памеры камэры, малекулы газу ўжо не сутыкаюцца адзін з адной, а вольна перамяшчаюцца ад сьценкі да сьценкі, у гэтым выпадку кажуць аб высокім вакууме(10-5 Тор). Звышвысокі вакуум адпавядае ціску 10-9 Тор і ніжэй. Для параўнаньня, ціск у космасе на некалькі парадкаў ніжэй, у далёкім жа космасе і зусім можа дасягаць 10-30 Тор і ніжэй.

Высокі вакуум у мікраскапічных парах некаторых крышталяў дасягаецца пры атмасфэрным ціску, што зьвязана менавіта з даўжынёй вольнага прабегу газу.

Апараты, якія выкарыстоўваюцца для дасягненьня і падтрыманьня вакууму, завуцца вакуумнымі помпамі. Для паглынаньня газаў і стварэньня неабходнай ступені вакууму выкарыстоўваюцца гэтэры. Шырэйшы тэрмін вакуумная тэхніка уключае таксама прыборы для вымярэньня і кантролю вакууму, маніпуляваньня прадметамі і правядзеньня тэхналягічных апэрацый у вакуумнай камэры, і т. д.

Варта адзначыць, што нават у ідэальным вакууме пры канчатковай тэмпэратуры заўсёды маецца некаторае цеплавое выпраменьваньне (газ фатонаў). Такім чынам, цела, зьмешчанае ў ідэальны вакуум, рана або позна прыйдзе ў цеплавую раўнавагу са сьценкамі вакуумнай камэры за кошт абмену цеплавымі фатонамі.

[рэдагаваць] Фізычны вакуум

Пад фізычным вакуумам у сучаснай фізыцы разумеюць цалкам пазбаўленае матэрыі прастора. Нават калі бы атрымалася атрымаць гэты стан на практыцы, ён ня быў бы абсалютнай пустэчай. Квантавая тэорыя поля сьцьвярджае, што, у згодзе з прынцыпам нявызначанасьці, у фізычным вакууме стала нараджаюцца і зьнікаюць віртуальныя часьціцы: адбываюцца так званыя нулявыя ваганьні палёў. У некаторых пэўных тэорыях поля вакуум можа валодаць нетрывіяльнымі тапалягічнымі ўласьцівасьцямі, але ня толькі, а таксама ў тэорыі могуць існаваць некалькі розных вакуумаў, якія адрозніваюцца шчыльнасьцю энэргіі, і т. д.

Некаторыя з гэтых прадказаньняў тэорыі поля ўжо былі пасьпяхова пацьверджаныя экспэрымэнтам. Так, эфэкт Казіміра[1] і лэмбаўскі зрух атамных узроўняў тлумачыцца нулявымі ваганьнямі электрамагнітнага поля ў фізычным вакууме. На некаторых іншых паданьнях аб вакууме грунтуюцца сучасныя фізычныя тэорыі. Напрыклад, існаваньне некалькіх вакуумных станаў (так званых ілжывых вакуумаў) зьяўляецца адным з галоўных асноў інфляцыйнай тэорыі Вялікага выбуху.

Але, мабыць, самым навочным з зьяў, якія нельга растлумачыць, не выкарыстаючы ідэю аб нулявых ваганьнях вакууму, гэтае спантанае выпраменьваньне. Самыя звычайныя выпраменьвальныя спантана лямпы напальваньня не сьвяціліся бы, калі бы вакуум быў абсалютнай пустэчай. Справа ў тым, што любы аб'ект (а, значыць, і ўзбуджаны атам), зьмешчаны ў абсалютна пустая прастора, уяўляе сабой замкнёную сыстэму. А паколькі такая сыстэма стабільная ў часе, то ніякага выпраменьваньня не адбывалася бы. Ужо з гэтай простай развагі зразумела, што тлумачэньне спантанага выпраменьваньня патрабуе прыцягненьня больш складанай мадэлі вакууму, чым клясычная абсалютная пустэча.

歡迎來到Bewise Inc.的世界,首先恭喜您來到這接受新的資訊讓產業更有競爭力,我們是提供專業刀具製造商,應對客戶高品質的刀具需求,我們可以協助客戶滿足您對產業的不同要求,我們有能力達到非常卓越的客戶需求品質,這是現有相關技術無法比擬的,我們成功的滿足了各行各業的要求,包括:精密HSS DIN切削刀具協助客戶設計刀具流程DIN or JIS 鎢鋼切削刀具設計NAS986 NAS965 NAS897 NAS937orNAS907 航太切削刀具,NAS航太刀具設計超高硬度的切削刀具醫療配件刀具設計汽車業刀具設計電子產業鑽石刀具木工產業鑽石刀具等等。我們的產品涵蓋了從民生刀具到工業級的刀具設計;從微細刀具到大型刀具;從小型生產到大型量產;全自動整合;我們的技術可提供您連續生產的效能,我們整體的服務及卓越的技術,恭迎您親自體驗!!

BW Bewise Inc. Willy Chen willy@tool-tool.com bw@tool-tool.com www.tool-tool.com skype:willy_chen_bw mobile:0937-618-190 Head &Administration Office No.13,Shiang Shang 2nd St., West Chiu Taichung,Taiwan 40356 http://www.tool-tool..com / FAX:+886 4 2471 4839 N.Branch 5F,No.460,Fu Shin North Rd.,Taipei,Taiwan S.Branch No.24,Sec.1,Chia Pu East Rd.,Taipao City,Chiayi Hsien,Taiwan

Welcome to BW tool world! We are an experienced tool maker specialized in cutting tools. We focus on what you need and endeavor to research the best cutter to satisfy users demand. Our customers involve wide range of industries, like mold & die, aerospace, electronic, machinery, etc. We are professional expert in cutting field. We would like to solve every problem from you. Please feel free to contact us, its our pleasure to serve for you. BW product including: cutting toolaerospace tool .HSS DIN Cutting toolCarbide end millsCarbide cutting toolNAS Cutting toolNAS986 NAS965 NAS897 NAS937orNAS907 Cutting Tools,Carbide end milldisc milling cutter,Aerospace cutting toolhss drillФрезерыCarbide drillHigh speed steelMilling cutterCVDD(Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamond )’PCBN (Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride) Core drillTapered end millsCVD Diamond Tools Inserts’PCD Edge-Beveling Cutter(Golden FingerPCD V-CutterPCD Wood toolsPCD Cutting toolsPCD Circular Saw BladePVDD End Millsdiamond tool Single Crystal Diamond Metric end millsMiniature end millsСпециальные режущие инструменты Пустотелое сверло Pilot reamerFraisesFresas con mango PCD (Polycrystalline diamond) ‘FreseElectronics cutterStep drillMetal cutting sawDouble margin drillGun barrelAngle milling cutterCarbide burrsCarbide tipped cutterChamfering toolIC card engraving cutterSide cutterNAS toolDIN or JIS toolSpecial toolMetal slitting sawsShell end millsSide and face milling cuttersSide chip clearance sawsLong end millsStub roughing end millsDovetail milling cuttersCarbide slot drillsCarbide torus cuttersAngel carbide end millsCarbide torus cuttersCarbide ball-nosed slot drillsMould cutterTool manufacturer.

Bewise Inc. www.tool-tool.com

ようこそBewise Inc.の世界へお越し下さいませ、先ず御目出度たいのは新たな

情報を受け取って頂き、もっと各産業に競争力プラス展開。

弊社は専門なエンドミルの製造メーカーで、客先に色んな分野のニーズ

豊富なパリエーションを満足させ、特にハイテク品質要求にサポート致します。

弊社は各領域に供給できる内容は:

(1)精密HSSエンドミルのR&D

(2)Carbide Cutting tools設計

(3)鎢鋼エンドミル設計

(4)航空エンドミル設計

(5)超高硬度エンドミル

(6)ダイヤモンドエンドミル

(7)医療用品エンドミル設計

(8)自動車部品&材料加工向けエンドミル設計

弊社の製品の供給調達機能は:

(1)生活産業~ハイテク工業までのエンドミル設計

(2)ミクロエンドミル~大型エンドミル供給

(3)小Lot生産~大量発注対応供給

(4)オートメーション整備調達

(5)スポット対応~流れ生産対応

弊社の全般供給体制及び技術自慢の総合専門製造メーカーに貴方のご体験を御待ちしております。

BW специализируется в научных исследованиях и разработках, и снабжаем самым высокотехнологичным карбидовым материалом для поставки режущих / фрезеровочных инструментов для почвы, воздушного пространства и электронной индустрии. В нашу основную продукцию входит твердый карбид / быстрорежущая сталь, а также двигатели, микроэлектрические дрели, IC картонорезальные машины, фрезы для гравирования, режущие пилы, фрезеры-расширители, фрезеры-расширители с резцом, дрели, резаки форм для шлицевого вала / звездочки роликовой цепи, и специальные нано инструменты. Пожалуйста, посетите сайт www.tool-tool.com для получения большей информации.

BW is specialized in R&D and sourcing the most advanced carbide material with high-tech coating to supply cutting / milling tool for mould & die, aero space and electronic industry. Our main products include solid carbide / HSS end mills, micro electronic drill, IC card cutter, engraving cutter, shell end mills, cutting saw, reamer, thread reamer, leading drill, involute gear cutter for spur wheel, rack and worm milling cutter, thread milling cutter, form cutters for spline shaft/roller chain sprocket, and special tool, with nano grade. Please visit our web www.tool-tool.com for more info.

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主な用途●耐摩耗部品●切削工具●工業用刃物(カッター)●導電部品

針對客戶需求、應用在裁切再生紙工業與包裝工業上面、可以用HSS與鎢鋼製造。

歡迎來到Bewise Inc.的世界,首先恭喜您來到這接受新的資訊讓產業更有競爭力,我們是提供專業刀具製造商,應對客戶高品質的刀具需求,我們可以協助客戶滿足您對產業的不同要求,我們有能力達到非常卓越的客戶需求品質,這是現有相關技術無法比擬的,我們成功的滿足了各行各業的要求,包括:精密HSS DIN切削刀具協助客戶設計刀具流程DIN or JIS 鎢鋼切削刀具設計NAS986 NAS965 NAS897 NAS937orNAS907 航太切削刀具,NAS航太刀具設計超高硬度的切削刀具醫療配件刀具設計汽車業刀具設計電子產業鑽石刀具木工產業鑽石刀具等等。我們的產品涵蓋了從民生刀具到工業級的刀具設計;從微細刀具到大型刀具;從小型生產到大型量產;全自動整合;我們的技術可提供您連續生產的效能,我們整體的服務及卓越的技術,恭迎您親自體驗!!

BW Bewise Inc. Willy Chen willy@tool-tool.com bw@tool-tool.com www.tool-tool.com skype:willy_chen_bw mobile:0937-618-190 Head &Administration Office No.13,Shiang Shang 2nd St., West Chiu Taichung,Taiwan 40356 http://www.tool-tool..com / FAX:+886 4 2471 4839 N.Branch 5F,No.460,Fu Shin North Rd.,Taipei,Taiwan S.Branch No.24,Sec.1,Chia Pu East Rd.,Taipao City,Chiayi Hsien,Taiwan

Welcome to BW tool world! We are an experienced tool maker specialized in cutting tools. We focus on what you need and endeavor to research the best cutter to satisfy users demand. Our customers involve wide range of industries, like mold & die, aerospace, electronic, machinery, etc. We are professional expert in cutting field. We would like to solve every problem from you. Please feel free to contact us, its our pleasure to serve for you. BW product including: cutting toolaerospace tool .HSS DIN Cutting toolCarbide end millsCarbide cutting toolNAS Cutting toolNAS986 NAS965 NAS897 NAS937orNAS907 Cutting Tools,Carbide end milldisc milling cutter,Aerospace cutting toolhss drillФрезерыCarbide drillHigh speed steelMilling cutterCVDD(Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamond )’PCBN (Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride) Core drillTapered end millsCVD Diamond Tools Inserts’PCD Edge-Beveling Cutter(Golden FingerPCD V-CutterPCD Wood toolsPCD Cutting toolsPCD Circular Saw BladePVDD End Millsdiamond tool Single Crystal Diamond Metric end millsMiniature end millsСпециальные режущие инструменты Пустотелое сверло Pilot reamerFraisesFresas con mango PCD (Polycrystalline diamond) ‘FreseElectronics cutterStep drillMetal cutting sawDouble margin drillGun barrelAngle milling cutterCarbide burrsCarbide tipped cutterChamfering toolIC card engraving cutterSide cutterNAS toolDIN or JIS toolSpecial toolMetal slitting sawsShell end millsSide and face milling cuttersSide chip clearance sawsLong end millsStub roughing end millsDovetail milling cuttersCarbide slot drillsCarbide torus cuttersAngel carbide end millsCarbide torus cuttersCarbide ball-nosed slot drillsMould cutterTool manufacturer.

Bewise Inc. www.tool-tool.com

ようこそBewise Inc.の世界へお越し下さいませ、先ず御目出度たいのは新たな

情報を受け取って頂き、もっと各産業に競争力プラス展開。

弊社は専門なエンドミルの製造メーカーで、客先に色んな分野のニーズ

豊富なパリエーションを満足させ、特にハイテク品質要求にサポート致します。

弊社は各領域に供給できる内容は:

(1)精密HSSエンドミルのR&D

(2)Carbide Cutting tools設計

(3)鎢鋼エンドミル設計

(4)航空エンドミル設計

(5)超高硬度エンドミル

(6)ダイヤモンドエンドミル

(7)医療用品エンドミル設計

(8)自動車部品&材料加工向けエンドミル設計

弊社の製品の供給調達機能は:

(1)生活産業~ハイテク工業までのエンドミル設計

(2)ミクロエンドミル~大型エンドミル供給

(3)小Lot生産~大量発注対応供給

(4)オートメーション整備調達

(5)スポット対応~流れ生産対応

弊社の全般供給体制及び技術自慢の総合専門製造メーカーに貴方のご体験を御待ちしております。

BW специализируется в научных исследованиях и разработках, и снабжаем самым высокотехнологичным карбидовым материалом для поставки режущих / фрезеровочных инструментов для почвы, воздушного пространства и электронной индустрии. В нашу основную продукцию входит твердый карбид / быстрорежущая сталь, а также двигатели, микроэлектрические дрели, IC картонорезальные машины, фрезы для гравирования, режущие пилы, фрезеры-расширители, фрезеры-расширители с резцом, дрели, резаки форм для шлицевого вала / звездочки роликовой цепи, и специальные нано инструменты. Пожалуйста, посетите сайт www.tool-tool.com для получения большей информации.

BW is specialized in R&D and sourcing the most advanced carbide material with high-tech coating to supply cutting / milling tool for mould & die, aero space and electronic industry. Our main products include solid carbide / HSS end mills, micro electronic drill, IC card cutter, engraving cutter, shell end mills, cutting saw, reamer, thread reamer, leading drill, involute gear cutter for spur wheel, rack and worm milling cutter, thread milling cutter, form cutters for spline shaft/roller chain sprocket, and special tool, with nano grade. Please visit our web www.tool-tool.com for more info.

beeway 發表在 痞客邦 PIXNET 留言(0) 人氣()

Beewise Inc.是專業刀具製造廠商、對於木工工業刀具有深入研究、替地板加工廠研發PCD鑽石組合刀具、加工在地板企口專用刀具、符合地板容易組合與穩合度、以達到切割木材地板細膩度。


地板加工廠非常注意地板加工切削效能與切割表面粗糙度、
因此BW工具研發部門開發、PCD鑽石組合刀具以增加客戶加工時間、延長刀具壽命、在針對砌口切削穩定細膩再做改善、以符合歐美國家氣候上下溫差 30~40度地板變化、達到歐美國家木工師傅主裝地板方便性、縮短施工時間是客戶基本要求。


歡迎來到Bewise Inc.的世界,首先恭喜您來到這接受新的資訊讓產業更有競爭力,我們是提供專業刀具製造商,應對客戶高品質的刀具需求,我們可以協助客戶滿足您對產業的不同要求,我們有能力達到非常卓越的客戶需求品質,這是現有相關技術無法比擬的,我們成功的滿足了各行各業的要求,包括:精密HSS DIN切削刀具協助客戶設計刀具流程DIN or JIS 鎢鋼切削刀具設計NAS986 NAS965 NAS897 NAS937orNAS907 航太切削刀具,NAS航太刀具設計超高硬度的切削刀具醫療配件刀具設計汽車業刀具設計電子產業鑽石刀具木工產業鑽石刀具等等。我們的產品涵蓋了從民生刀具到工業級的刀具設計;從微細刀具到大型刀具;從小型生產到大型量產;全自動整合;我們的技術可提供您連續生產的效能,我們整體的服務及卓越的技術,恭迎您親自體驗!!

BW Bewise Inc. Willy Chen willy@tool-tool.com bw@tool-tool.com www.tool-tool.com skype:willy_chen_bw mobile:0937-618-190 Head &Administration Office No.13,Shiang Shang 2nd St., West Chiu Taichung,Taiwan 40356 http://www.tool-tool..com / FAX:+886 4 2471 4839 N.Branch 5F,No.460,Fu Shin North Rd.,Taipei,Taiwan S.Branch No.24,Sec.1,Chia Pu East Rd.,Taipao City,Chiayi Hsien,Taiwan

Welcome to BW tool world! We are an experienced tool maker specialized in cutting tools. We focus on what you need and endeavor to research the best cutter to satisfy users demand. Our customers involve wide range of industries, like mold & die, aerospace, electronic, machinery, etc. We are professional expert in cutting field. We would like to solve every problem from you. Please feel free to contact us, its our pleasure to serve for you. BW product including: cutting toolaerospace tool .HSS DIN Cutting toolCarbide end millsCarbide cutting toolNAS Cutting toolNAS986 NAS965 NAS897 NAS937orNAS907 Cutting Tools,Carbide end milldisc milling cutter,Aerospace cutting toolhss drillФрезерыCarbide drillHigh speed steelMilling cutterCVDD(Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamond )’PCBN (Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride) Core drillTapered end millsCVD Diamond Tools Inserts’PCD Edge-Beveling Cutter(Golden FingerPCD V-CutterPCD Wood toolsPCD Cutting toolsPCD Circular Saw BladePVDD End Millsdiamond tool Single Crystal Diamond Metric end millsMiniature end millsСпециальные режущие инструменты Пустотелое сверло Pilot reamerFraisesFresas con mango PCD (Polycrystalline diamond) ‘FreseElectronics cutterStep drillMetal cutting sawDouble margin drillGun barrelAngle milling cutterCarbide burrsCarbide tipped cutterChamfering toolIC card engraving cutterSide cutterNAS toolDIN or JIS toolSpecial toolMetal slitting sawsShell end millsSide and face milling cuttersSide chip clearance sawsLong end millsStub roughing end millsDovetail milling cuttersCarbide slot drillsCarbide torus cuttersAngel carbide end millsCarbide torus cuttersCarbide ball-nosed slot drillsMould cutterTool manufacturer.

Bewise Inc. www.tool-tool.com

ようこそBewise Inc.の世界へお越し下さいませ、先ず御目出度たいのは新たな

情報を受け取って頂き、もっと各産業に競争力プラス展開。

弊社は専門なエンドミルの製造メーカーで、客先に色んな分野のニーズ

豊富なパリエーションを満足させ、特にハイテク品質要求にサポート致します。

弊社は各領域に供給できる内容は:

(1)精密HSSエンドミルのR&D

(2)Carbide Cutting tools設計

(3)鎢鋼エンドミル設計

(4)航空エンドミル設計

(5)超高硬度エンドミル

(6)ダイヤモンドエンドミル

(7)医療用品エンドミル設計

(8)自動車部品&材料加工向けエンドミル設計

弊社の製品の供給調達機能は:

(1)生活産業~ハイテク工業までのエンドミル設計

(2)ミクロエンドミル~大型エンドミル供給

(3)小Lot生産~大量発注対応供給

(4)オートメーション整備調達

(5)スポット対応~流れ生産対応

弊社の全般供給体制及び技術自慢の総合専門製造メーカーに貴方のご体験を御待ちしております。

BW специализируется в научных исследованиях и разработках, и снабжаем самым высокотехнологичным карбидовым материалом для поставки режущих / фрезеровочных инструментов для почвы, воздушного пространства и электронной индустрии. В нашу основную продукцию входит твердый карбид / быстрорежущая сталь, а также двигатели, микроэлектрические дрели, IC картонорезальные машины, фрезы для гравирования, режущие пилы, фрезеры-расширители, фрезеры-расширители с резцом, дрели, резаки форм для шлицевого вала / звездочки роликовой цепи, и специальные нано инструменты. Пожалуйста, посетите сайт www.tool-tool.com для получения большей информации.

BW is specialized in R&D and sourcing the most advanced carbide material with high-tech coating to supply cutting / milling tool for mould & die, aero space and electronic industry. Our main products include solid carbide / HSS end mills, micro electronic drill, IC card cutter, engraving cutter, shell end mills, cutting saw, reamer, thread reamer, leading drill, involute gear cutter for spur wheel, rack and worm milling cutter, thread milling cutter, form cutters for spline shaft/roller chain sprocket, and special tool, with nano grade. Please visit our web www.tool-tool.com for more info.

beeway 發表在 痞客邦 PIXNET 留言(0) 人氣()

Bewise Inc. www.tool-tool.com Reference source from the internet.

鑽石工具及氮化硼(CBN)砂輪市場

粉末與鑽石工具及氮化硼(CBN)砂輪之關係

鑽石工具及氮化硼(CBN)砂輪具有傳統磨料(氧化鋁及碳化矽砂

輪),在硬度、抗耐磨耗性、抗壓強度及具銅5 倍以上的熱傳導性等所不

及的特性,所以稱之為超級磨料。同時因其有如上述的優越特性,所以

也漸漸取代傳統砂輪,在要求精密度0.5μm以下的加工件,鑽石工具取

代碳化矽砂輪,氮化硼(CBN)砂輪則取代氧化鋁砂輪。

鑽石工具及氮化硼(CBN)砂輪主要的製造方法有4 種,分別是

(1)金屬法(2)樹脂法(3)電鑄法(4)瓷質法。在國內以金屬法製成品

佔最大量,金屬法是粉末冶金的一種,金屬粉末在金屬法內係當作結合

劑使用。

鑽石工具最適合切削非鐵系金屬或非金屬類之難切削材料(例如複

合材料、陶瓷材料、玻璃等),同時其加工精度高、效率好。就做為切削

工具而言,因具優越耐磨性,可維持銳利形狀,應用在高品質的精密加

工,例如鏡面切削的超精密加工。鑽石工具使用的鑽石,共計有天然的

金鋼石、天然的金鋼砂、合成鑽石粉,鑽石顆粒等多種。

硬度次於鑽石的氮化硼工具,雖非鑽石,但與鑽石工具同樣呈急劇

成長,用途擴大,在工具之中佔同樣的重要地位。因其本身乃屬高耐熱

材,不與鐵系金屬反應,適用於如工具鋼、構造用合金鋼之類鐵系難切

肆、國內金屬粉末應用市場

57

削材料上的加工。

鑽石工具及氮化硼(CBN)砂輪的產品的包括鑽石鑽頭、鑽石鋸片、鑽

石眼模、鑽石車刀、鑽石研磨用工具、鑽石修刀、鑽石彎磨器、鑽石精

磨錠等。

在鑽石工具及氮化硼(CBN)砂輪眾多產品之中,產量以鑽石鋸片

(石材鋸切用)為最大量,金屬粉末(鈷粉)的用量也最多,其次為鑽石

砂輪,金屬粉末(鈷、銅、錫粉)在其中佔13%的成本比例。

歡迎來到Bewise Inc.的世界,首先恭喜您來到這接受新的資訊讓產業更有競爭力,我們是提供專業刀具製造商,應對客戶高品質的刀具需求,我們可以協助客戶滿足您對產業的不同要求,我們有能力達到非常卓越的客戶需求品質,這是現有相關技術無法比擬的,我們成功的滿足了各行各業的要求,包括:精密HSS DIN切削刀具協助客戶設計刀具流程DIN or JIS 鎢鋼切削刀具設計NAS986 NAS965 NAS897 NAS937orNAS907 航太切削刀具,NAS航太刀具設計超高硬度的切削刀具醫療配件刀具設計汽車業刀具設計電子產業鑽石刀具木工產業鑽石刀具等等。我們的產品涵蓋了從民生刀具到工業級的刀具設計;從微細刀具到大型刀具;從小型生產到大型量產;全自動整合;我們的技術可提供您連續生產的效能,我們整體的服務及卓越的技術,恭迎您親自體驗!!

BW Bewise Inc. Willy Chen willy@tool-tool.com bw@tool-tool.com www.tool-tool.com skype:willy_chen_bw mobile:0937-618-190 Head &Administration Office No.13,Shiang Shang 2nd St., West Chiu Taichung,Taiwan 40356 http://www.tool-tool..com / FAX:+886 4 2471 4839 N.Branch 5F,No.460,Fu Shin North Rd.,Taipei,Taiwan S.Branch No.24,Sec.1,Chia Pu East Rd.,Taipao City,Chiayi Hsien,Taiwan

Welcome to BW tool world! We are an experienced tool maker specialized in cutting tools. We focus on what you need and endeavor to research the best cutter to satisfy users demand. Our customers involve wide range of industries, like mold & die, aerospace, electronic, machinery, etc. We are professional expert in cutting field. We would like to solve every problem from you. Please feel free to contact us, its our pleasure to serve for you. BW product including: cutting toolaerospace tool .HSS DIN Cutting toolCarbide end millsCarbide cutting toolNAS Cutting toolNAS986 NAS965 NAS897 NAS937orNAS907 Cutting Tools,Carbide end milldisc milling cutter,Aerospace cutting toolhss drillФрезерыCarbide drillHigh speed steelMilling cutterCVDD(Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamond )’PCBN (Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride) Core drillTapered end millsCVD Diamond Tools Inserts’PCD Edge-Beveling Cutter(Golden FingerPCD V-CutterPCD Wood toolsPCD Cutting toolsPCD Circular Saw BladePVDD End Millsdiamond tool Single Crystal Diamond Metric end millsMiniature end millsСпециальные режущие инструменты Пустотелое сверло Pilot reamerFraisesFresas con mango PCD (Polycrystalline diamond) ‘FreseElectronics cutterStep drillMetal cutting sawDouble margin drillGun barrelAngle milling cutterCarbide burrsCarbide tipped cutterChamfering toolIC card engraving cutterSide cutterNAS toolDIN or JIS toolSpecial toolMetal slitting sawsShell end millsSide and face milling cuttersSide chip clearance sawsLong end millsStub roughing end millsDovetail milling cuttersCarbide slot drillsCarbide torus cuttersAngel carbide end millsCarbide torus cuttersCarbide ball-nosed slot drillsMould cutterTool manufacturer.

Bewise Inc. www.tool-tool.com

ようこそBewise Inc.の世界へお越し下さいませ、先ず御目出度たいのは新たな

情報を受け取って頂き、もっと各産業に競争力プラス展開。

弊社は専門なエンドミルの製造メーカーで、客先に色んな分野のニーズ

豊富なパリエーションを満足させ、特にハイテク品質要求にサポート致します。

弊社は各領域に供給できる内容は:

(1)精密HSSエンドミルのR&D

(2)Carbide Cutting tools設計

(3)鎢鋼エンドミル設計

(4)航空エンドミル設計

(5)超高硬度エンドミル

(6)ダイヤモンドエンドミル

(7)医療用品エンドミル設計

(8)自動車部品&材料加工向けエンドミル設計

弊社の製品の供給調達機能は:

(1)生活産業~ハイテク工業までのエンドミル設計

(2)ミクロエンドミル~大型エンドミル供給

(3)小Lot生産~大量発注対応供給

(4)オートメーション整備調達

(5)スポット対応~流れ生産対応

弊社の全般供給体制及び技術自慢の総合専門製造メーカーに貴方のご体験を御待ちしております。

BW специализируется в научных исследованиях и разработках, и снабжаем самым высокотехнологичным карбидовым материалом для поставки режущих / фрезеровочных инструментов для почвы, воздушного пространства и электронной индустрии. В нашу основную продукцию входит твердый карбид / быстрорежущая сталь, а также двигатели, микроэлектрические дрели, IC картонорезальные машины, фрезы для гравирования, режущие пилы, фрезеры-расширители, фрезеры-расширители с резцом, дрели, резаки форм для шлицевого вала / звездочки роликовой цепи, и специальные нано инструменты. Пожалуйста, посетите сайт www.tool-tool.com для получения большей информации.

BW is specialized in R&D and sourcing the most advanced carbide material with high-tech coating to supply cutting / milling tool for mould & die, aero space and electronic industry. Our main products include solid carbide / HSS end mills, micro electronic drill, IC card cutter, engraving cutter, shell end mills, cutting saw, reamer, thread reamer, leading drill, involute gear cutter for spur wheel, rack and worm milling cutter, thread milling cutter, form cutters for spline shaft/roller chain sprocket, and special tool, with nano grade. Please visit our web www.tool-tool.com for more info.

beeway 發表在 痞客邦 PIXNET 留言(0) 人氣()

Bewise Inc. www.tool-tool.com Reference source from the internet.

ダッソー ミラージュ 2000

ミラージュ 2000C

ミラージュ 2000C

ダッソー ミラージュ 2000 (Dassault Mirage 2000) はフランスダッソー社製の軍用機である。迎撃戦闘機の要求に基づいて開発されたが、改良が続けられた結果、世界的に有名なミラージュ・シリーズの最新マルチロール機となった。

[編集] 概要

無尾翼デルタ式の単発の戦闘機。フランスの他、8ヶ国に採用されている。主な武装は、30mm機関砲2門を固定武装とし、ハードポイントは9ヶ所。空対空ミサイル4発の他、通常爆弾、対地ミサイル、対艦ミサイル等を搭載可能である。

現在では、後継機のラファール戦闘機の生産が進められているが、輸出用としては今なお提案が続いている。

[編集] 開発の経緯

ダッソーは無尾翼デルタ機の開発を得意としてきたが、これは機体の小型軽量化、飛行特性の安定性などにメリットがある一方で、STOL性能、低空飛行、機動性などが主・尾翼の組み合わせによる二翼式の航空機に劣るとされ、ミラージュ 2000の前作であるミラージュ F1の開発においては採用されなかった。

ダッソーとフランス空軍は、当初地上攻撃に重点をおいた双発可変翼戦闘機ミラージュ G-4を、次いでその派生型要撃機ミラージュ G-8を、次期戦闘機として開発していたが、費用・運用の両面から1975年に全プロジェクトは中止となった。同年にNATO4ヶ国の新型戦闘機導入商戦において、ミラージュ F1E/M53がF-16に敗れていたことも影響した。

フ ランス空軍・ダッソーの両者が必要としていた次期戦闘機計画 (ACF) は、1976年の時点で実用化までの期限が1982年までという当時としても短期間での開発計画として再度開始された(注:現代の戦闘機開発は、さらに長 期化している)。ダッソーにとっては、短期間で十分な成果を残すことを求められた結果、最新の技術を以ってすればデメリットを克服できるとして、1972 年より『Super ミラージュ 3』『デルタ 1000』などの名称で検討されていたミラージュ IIIの後継機をもってこれに充て、再び得意の無尾翼デルタによる開発が始まった。

ミラージュ 2000はエンジンをミラージュ G-4/8用のSNECMA社製 SNECMA M53を採用するなど開発期間の短期化に注力した結果、設計開始から初飛行までわずか27ヶ月と驚異的な速さで開発は進み(それでも、計画から9ヶ月遅延していた)、1983年には量産型の軍への納入を開始、翌年には実戦配備されている。ただし、レーダーの開発は間に合わず、最初期の37機はRDIレーダーの代わりにRDMレーダーを装備していた。

主翼の後退角は58度、機体構造には複合材を使用することにより、軽量化を図っている。静安定性を低めているために、操縦システムにはフライ・バイ・ワイヤを採用した。

1986 年に発表されたミラージュ 2000-5は、ミラージュ 2000Cを発展させたモデルである。フランス空軍はミラージュ 2000をラファールと共に第一線を支えさせる予定で、フランス国内に配備されているミラージュ 2000Cはミラージュ 2000-5へと交代中である。

[編集] 派生型

主なバリエーションは以下の通り。

  1. ミラージュ 2000
    • プロトタイプ
  2. ミラージュ 2000C
    • RDMレーダーを装備した、最初の量産型
  3. ミラージュ 2000B
    • ミラージュ 2000の複座型
  4. ミラージュ 2000D
    • ミラージュ 2000Nの通常兵器のみの戦闘爆撃機型
  5. ミラージュ 2000E
    • ミラージュ 2000Cの輸出型
  6. ミラージュ 2000N
    • ミラージュ 2000Bに核弾頭搭載の巡航ミサイルASMPの運用能力を付与した、ミラージュ IV後継の戦闘爆撃機型。
  7. ミラージュ 2000DA (ミラージュ 2000C-S4/S5)
    • RDIレーダーを装備し、防空戦能力を向上させたミラージュ 2000Cの後期生産型。DAは、Defense Aerienne(防空)の略。
  8. ミラージュ 2000-5
    • 次世代型と呼ばれ、大幅に改良を施した能力向上型。新型のRDYレーダーを装備し、MICAミサイルの運用能力を得た他、計器類がラファールから派生した統合モニターに交換されるなどの改良を施した型。
  9. ミラージュ 2000-5 Mk 2
    • ミラージュ 2000-5に、レーダー改良・航法装置の改良・データ処理能力の向上・電子戦能力の強化を施した型。
  10. ミラージュ 4000
    • ダッソーの社内企画による、拡大双発型。不採用に終わる。

[編集] スペック

ミラージュ 2000 三面図
  • 乗員: 1-2名
  • 全長: 14.4 m
  • 翼幅: 9.1 m
  • 全高: 5.2 m
  • 翼面積: 41 m²
  • 自重: 7,500 kgf
  • 最大離陸: 17,000 kgf
  • エンジン: SNECMA M53-P2 ターボファンエンジン 1基
  • 推力: 6,600(9,700)kgp(A/B)
  • 戦闘行動半径: 1,480 km
  • 最大速度: 2,340 km/h
  • 最大マッハ数: Mach 2.2
  • 上昇限度: 16,750m
  • 上昇率: 17,000 m/min
  • 固定武装: DEFA554 30 mm 機関砲 2門
  • 爆弾: 250 kg爆弾など6.3t
  • ミサイル
  • ロケット弾: 68 mm ロケット
  • その他: 増槽
    グワリオール基地のインド空軍機

    グワリオール基地のインド空軍機
    離陸するギリシャ空軍所属ミラージュ 2000EG

    離陸するギリシャ空軍所属ミラージュ 2000EG

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Mirage 2000

A Mirage 2000-5F of the French Air Force

Type Multirole fighter aircraft
Manufacturer Dassault Aviation
Maiden flight 10 March 1978
Introduced June 1984
Primary users French Air Force
Indian Air Force
United Arab Emirates Air Force
Republic of China Air Force
Number built 611
Unit cost US$23 million
Developed from Dassault Mirage III
Variants Dassault Mirage 2000N/2000D
Dassault Mirage 4000

The Mirage 2000 is a French-built multirole fighter jet manufactured by Dassault Aviation. Designed in the late seventies as a lightweight fighter for the Armée de l'Air, it evolved into a successful multirole aircraft now in service in 9 countries with more than 600 Mirages built.

[edit] Development

The Avion de Combat Futur (ACF) was developed for the French Air Force in the early 1970s. After the ACF was canceled on 18 December 1975 due to its growing cost and complexity, Dassault offered the Mirage 2000 as an alternative. This was a return to the first generation Mirages, but with several important innovations that tried to solve their shortcomings. Project chiefs were B.C. Valliéres, J.Cabrière, J.C. Veber and B.Revellin-Falcoz[1].

Development of this small aircraft would also give the company a competitor to the General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon, which had defeated the Dassault Mirage F1 in a contest for a new fighter for the air forces of Belgium, Denmark, Netherlands and Norway. Small single-engined fighters were clearly the most appreciated by foreign customers, as experience with the larger, twin-engined Mirage 4000 would show.

The prototype made its first flight in March 10, 1978 with test pilot Jean Coreau at the controls. Despite the new technologies applied, basing the new aircraft on the Mirage III allowed the development of a flyable prototype in only 27 months from the program start to the first flight, even if active service status needed another six years.

In that summer, at the Farnbourgh airshow, this machine displayed not only excellent handling capabilities, but also a full control at 204 km/h and 26 AoA. This was totally unexpected by a delta-wing fighter, and proof how CCD controls were capable of overcoming the delta wing shortcomings related to poor low-speed control, while retaining the advantages, such as low-drag, low RCS, ideal high speed aerodynamics and simplicity, provided by the absence of horizontal tail surfaces. The Mirage 2000 was one of the stars of that airshow and became the direct adversary for the F-16, which shared the CCD control and relaxed stability[2]. 02 Prototype followed in 18 September 1978 and 03 in 26 September 1979. After 400 hours of flight, they were sent to CEV (Centre Experimental du Vol). 04 Prototype was a demonstrator made by Dassault for its own purposes, and finally the first dual-seat M.2000B flew in 11 October 1980.

The first production example flew in November 20, 1982 and the aircraft went into operational service in 1984. They were practically pre-production aircraft, because they had no SARH missiles (RDM-1 radar) and the first model of SNECMA 'Super Atar'. M-53-2. The last Mirage 2000 was delivered on November 23, 2007.[3]

The Mirage 2000 is scheduled to be replaced in French service by the Dassault Rafale, which became operational with the French Air Force on June 27, 2006. The Mirage 2000 production line was shut down in November 2007 after the last aircraft had been delivered to the Hellenic Air Force.

[edit] Design

Using the concept of the delta wing interceptor seen on the Dassault Mirage III, Dassault built a new fighter jet design. This configuration is not ideal with regard to maneuverability, low-altitude flight, and distance required for take-off and landing, but has advantages in high-speed flight characteristics, simplicity of construction, low radar signature and internal volume.

[edit] Features

French Mirage 2000C fully armed.

French Mirage 2000C fully armed.
  • Low-set thin delta wing with cambered section, 58 degrees leading-edge sweep (4 at the exit wing border) and moderately blended root; area-ruled; two small canard wings, fixed, placed just behind the air intakes. The flight commands on the wing are: four elevons (+15/-30°), four slats, four airbrakes (2 above and 2 below each wing.)
  • Parachute brake is on the tail, just above the engine exhaust.
  • The aircraft's center of lift was moved in front of its center of gravity, giving the fighter a degree of instability that enhances maneuverability.
  • A runway arresting hook or fairing for a brake parachute can be fitted under the tail. The landing roll was reduced by robust carbon brakes. The backward-retracting, steerable nose gear features dual wheels, while the main gear features single wheels and retracts inward into the wings.
  • An airbrake is fitted on top and below each wing in an arrangement very similar to that of the Mirage III. A noticeably taller tailfin allows the pilot to retain control at higher angles of attack, assisted by small strakes mounted along each air intake.
  • First fighter jet with negative static stability. [4]

[edit] Structure

Multi-spar metal wing; elevons have carbon-fiber skins with AG5 light alloy honeycomb cores; carbon-fiber/light alloy honeycomb panel covers avionics bay; most of the tailfin and all of the rudder are skinned with boron/epoxy/carbon; the rudder has a light alloy honeycomb core.

Dassault Mirage 2000C at Paris Air Show 2007

Dassault Mirage 2000C at Paris Air Show 2007

[edit] Flight control system

The aircraft has a redundant fly-by-wire automatic flight control system, providing a high degree of agility and easier handling, together with stability and precise control in all situations. Fighter's Airframe is naturally unstable, and so it is coupled with FBW commands to obtain the best agility; however, in override mode it is still possible to exceed a 270 deg/sec roll rate and allows the aircraft to reach 11 g (within the 12 g structural limit), instead of nine when engaged. The system is reliable with no known losses due to its failure.

[edit] Landing gear

The aircraft uses a retractable tricycle type landing gear by Messier-Bugatti, with twin nosewheels and a single wheel on each main gear. Hydraulic retraction, nosewheels rearward, main units inward. Oleo-pneumatic shock absorbers. Electrohydraulic nosewheel steering (+/-45 degrees). Manual disconnect permits the nosewheel unit to caster through 360 degrees for ground towing.

[edit] Cockpit

The fighter is available as a single-seat or two-seat multi-role fighter. The pilot flies the aircraft by means of a centre stick and left hand throttles, with both incorporating hands-on-throttle-and-stick (HOTAS) controls. The pilot sits on a SEMB Mark 10 zero-zero ejection seat (a license-built version of the British Martin-Baker Mark 10). Unlike in the F-16, the pilot sits in a conventional position, without the steep backward slope of the F-16 seat. The cockpit is quite small, and there is no bubble canopy. Despite this, the cockpit visibility is quite good, but less than the F-16, especially at 'six O'clock' (rearwards-looking) position.

The instrument panel (in the Mirage 2000 C) is dominated by a Heads Up Display (HUD) with the VMC 180 radar screen located centrally below it. To the lower left is a stores management panel, above which are the navigation instruments and altimeter. The right half of the instrument panel accommodates the engine and systems displays. Located on the left side of the cockpit, just ahead of the throttle, are controls for the communications equipment, including the Have Quick secure radio.

[edit] Avionics

Standard avionics for the Mirage-2000B/C include:

  • Sagem ULISS 52 inertial navigation system (INS), TRT radio altimeter.
  • Sextant TMV-980 data display system (VE-130 head-up and VMC-180 head-down) (two head-down in 2000N/D). The combined head-up/head-level display is collimated at infinity, and presents data relating to flight control, navigation, target engagement and weapon firing. Sensor and system management data is presented on two colored lateral displays.
  • Dassault Electronique Type 2084 central digital computer, Digibus digital databus (2084 XR in 2000D) and Sextant Avionique Type 90 air data computer.
  • LMT NRAI-7A IFF transponder, IO-300-A marker beacon receiver, TRT ERA 7000 V/UHF com transceiver, TRT ERA 7200 UHF or EAS secure voice communications.

[edit] Radar

  • Thomson-CSF RDM multi-mode radar or Dassault Electronique/Thomson-CSF RDI pulse-Doppler radar for the Mirage 2000C/D, each with an operating range of 54 nm (100 km / 62 miles). This unit was an evolution of Cyrano radars, with more modern processing units and look-down/shoot-down capabilities. The effective range is around 60-70 km with modest capabilities against low-level targets. It is linked with Super R.530F missiles, and equipped the first 37 aircraft delivered to the French Air Force (Armée de l'Air) and most exported Mirages. It has multirole capabilities that enable its use in air-to-surface tasks, including anti-ship roles. The very early RDM were still not linked with the Super R.530F missiles, but it was solved quickly.
  • RDI interception radar. A specialized radar for air-to-air tasks delivered mainly with the Mirage 2000C for the Armée de l'Air. It has a much improved range of about 150 km, and is linked to Super R.530D missiles; much improved compared to the "F". Look-down/shoot-down capabilities are much improved as well, but this radar is not usually used for air-to-surface roles.
  • Dassault/Thales Antelope 5 Radar with terrain avoidance capability for Mirage 2000N Nuclear Strike variant.
  • The Thales multimode RDY (Radar Doppler Multitarget) developed for the Mirage 2000-5. Third generation radar, with multiple target capabilities (comparable to the AWG-9) and MICA missiles. This radar equipped many of the most recently exported M.2000s, as-well as the first Mirage 2000RDM updated to 2000-5 standard.

[edit] Countermeasures

  • Thales Serval Radar warning receiver (RWR) with antennas on the wingtips and on the rear of the top of the tailfin.
  • Dassault Sabre RF jammer in a pod below the bottom of the tailfin, with an antenna in a fairing on the front of the tailfin.
  • Dassault Éclair dispenser system under the tail. This was eventually replaced by a pair of Matra Spirale dispensers, one fitted on an extension behind the rear of each wingroot, giving a total capacity of 224 cartridges.

[edit] Engines

Image:Mirage 2000B taking off.jpg
Mirage 2000 taking off with full afterburner.

The Mirage 2000 is equipped with a SNECMA M53-5 (first 37 airplanes), or SNECMA M53-P2 low-bypass ratio turbofan engine, depending on the aircraft version, which provides 64 kN of thrust dry and 98 kN in afterburner. The air intakes are fitted with an adjustable half-cone-shaped centerbody, which provides an inclined shock of air pressure for highly efficient air intake. Total internal fuel capacity is 3,978 litres in the Mirage 2000C and E, and 3,904 litres in the Mirage 2000B, N, D and S. There are also provisions for a jettisonable 1,300-litre centerline fuselage fuel tank and for a 1,700-litre drop tank under each wing.

[edit] Armament and payload

The Mirage 2000 can carry up to 6.3 tons (13,900 lb) (or 7 tons for -9 version) of stores on nine pylons, with two pylons on each wing and five under the fuselage. A fixed removable refuelling probe can be attached in front of the cockpit, offset slightly to the right of center.

Primary armament of the Mirage 2000 includes
  • Built-in armament consisted of twin DEFA 554 (now GIAT 30-550 F4) 30 mm revolver-type cannons with 125 rounds each. The cannons have selectable fire rates of 1,200 or 1,800 rounds per minute. Ammunitions weight 275 g and have a muzzle velocity of around 800 m/s. Even if this is not an impressive value (due to the 30x113 ammunition standard) this gives the noticeable capability to fire up to 16 kg/second, while the M61 Vulcan reaches only (at maximum theoretical ROF) 6 kg (ammunitions weights around 100 gr).
  • Matra Super 530 medium-range semi-active radar-guided air-to-air missile on the inboard wing pylons and underbelly one.
  • MICA missiles are replacing the previous. They are available only on the Mirage 2000-5 and further models. They have multiple advantages over previous missiles such as their weight, only 110 kg compared to 250-270 kg. This allows to carry up to 5 missiles under the belly. The data-link, active radar and auto-pilot make these weapons comparable to the heavier AMRAAM. The range is around 60 km, even more than the Super R.530D. So a Mirage 2000-5 with 4 MICA can engage four targets at the same time up to 60 km range, while a Mirage 2000 RDI can engage only two (not at the same time) within 40 km.
  • Matra Magic short-range infrared-seeking AAM on the outboard wing pylons. Other missiles are compatible, because Magic itself was meant as 'Sidewinder compatible', so AIM-9J/P/L are often used on exported Mirages, and often other IR missiles are also in the Mirages panoply.
  • The Mirage 2000C can carry air-to-ground stores such as the Matra 68 mm rocket pods (18 each), iron bombs (both French 250, 400, 1000 kg and Mk 80s series), and cluster bombs like Belouga or foreigner models. Some sub-version, especially those equipped with RDM (mainly used in export models) have the capability to use the Exocet anti-ship missiles.

[edit] Operational history

French Mirage 2000s saw operational use during the Gulf War although little combat action. UAE Mirages also flew in the Gulf War, but saw little action.

French Mirage 2000s were prominent participants in U.N. and NATO air operations over the former Yugoslavia, with one aircraft shot down over Bosnia by a heat-seeking surface-to-air missile in 1995, prompting efforts to obtain improved defensive systems.

On 10 October 1996, a Greek Mirage 2000 fired an R550 Magic 2 and shot down a Turkish F-16D (serial 91-0023) over the Aegean Sea, the only confirmed F-16 lost in air-to-air warfare. The pilot died, while the co-pilot ejected and was rescued by Greek forces.

AdA Mirage 2000Ds served in the intervention in Afghanistan in 2001-2002, operating in close conjunction with international forces and performing precision attacks with LGBs.

In summer 2007, after the Rafale fighters have been removed from the theater of operations, 3 French Mirage 2000's were deployed to Afghanistan in support of NATO troops.

Kargil War, 1999: India has assigned the nuclear strike role to their Mirage 2000s. In 1999 when the Kargil conflict broke out, as all the Russian aircraft in the IAF (MiG-21, MiG-23, MiG-27) were having problems operating at high altitudes or were vulnerable to enemy MANPADs, the Mirage 2000 proved ideal for high altitude bombing. The Mirage 2000 performed well during the whole conflict, even though the Mirages supplied to India had limited air interdiction capability and had to be heavily modified to drop dumb and laser-guided bombs. The two Mirage squadrons flew a total of 515 sorties, and in 240 strike missions dropped 55,000 kg of ordnance. Easy maintenance and a very high sortie rate made the Mirage 2000 one of the most efficient fighter of the Indian Air Force in the conflict.[citation needed]

[edit] Variants

[edit] Mirage 2000C

French Mirage 2000C

French Mirage 2000C

The first Mirage 2000 to go into service was the single-seat Mirage 2000C interceptor. There were four single-seat prototypes, including the initial Mirage 2000 prototype. The first production Mirage 2000C flew in November 1982. Deliveries began in 1983. The first operational squadron was formed in 1984, the 50th anniversary of the French Air Force. A total of 124 Mirage-2000Cs were obtained by the AdA.

The first 37 Mirage 2000Cs delivered were fitted with the Thomson-CSF RDM (Radar Doppler Multifunction) and were powered by the SNECMA M53-5 turbofan engine. The 38th Mirage 2000C had an upgraded SNECMA M53-5 P2 turbofan engine. The Radar Doppler Impulse (RDI) built by Thales did not enter service until 1987.

Latest upgrades include:

  • Non-Cooperative Target Recognition (NTCR) mode in RDI Radar allows identification of airborne targets not responding on IFF.
  • Integration with the new Matra MICA (Missile d'Interception, de Combat et d'Autodefense) IR heat-seeking missile. The radar-guided version of the MICA will not be able to support earlier versions of the Mirage 2000.
  • Indian Mirage-2000's have been integrated to carry the Russian R-73AE Archer missile and the indigeneous Indian built Astra missile.

[edit] Mirage 2000B

Mirage 2000B nose close up.

Mirage 2000B nose close up.

The Mirage 2000B is two-seat operational conversion trainer variant which performed its initial flight on October 11, 1980. The AdA acquired 30 Mirage 2000Bs, with all three of the AdA fighter wings obtaining a few each for conversion training.

[edit] Mirage 2000N and 2000D

The Mirage 2000N is the nuclear strike variant which was intended to carry the Aerospatiale Air-Sol Moyenne Portee (ASMP) nuclear stand-off missile. Initial flight tests of two prototypes began on February 3, 1983, and the Mirage 2000N entered operational service in 1988. A total of 75 were built.

The Mirage 2000D is a dedicated conventional attack variant developed from the Mirage 2000N. Initial flight of the Mirage 2000D prototype, a modified Mirage 2000N prototype, was on February 19, 1991. The first flight of a production aircraft occurred March 31, 1993, and service introduction followed in April 1995. A total of 86 were built.

[edit] Mirage 2000-5

By the late 1980s, the Mirage 2000 was beginning to age compared with the latest models of U.S. F-16 fighters, so Thomson-CSF began work on a privately funded update of the Mirage 2000C which was to be named the Mirage 2000-5. A two-seat Mirage 2000B prototype was extensively modified as the first Mirage 2000-5 prototype, and it first flew on October 24, 1990. A Mirage 2000C prototype was then reworked to a similar standard, making its initial flight on April 27, 1991.

Features:

  • The Thales multimode RDY (Radar Doppler Multitarget). The RDY radar is the heart of the upgrade, providing true multitarget tracking. It can simultaneously detect up to 24 targets and track the eight highest-priority threats while guiding four MICA EMs to different targets simultaneously.
  • The updated ICMS 2 countermeasures suite and the Samir DDM missile warning system. ICMS 2 incorporates a receiver and associated signal processing system in the nose for detection of hostile missile command data links. The aircraft’s self-protection equipment can be interfaced to a new programmable mission-planning and post-mission analysis ground system.
  • A new glass cockpit layout borrowed from the Rafale program with three-color MFDs, a dual-linked wide-angle HUD / head-level display, and HOTAS controls. The cockpit is NVG-compatible.
  • Targeting systems included the Thales TV/CT CLDP laser designation pod which provides the capability to fire laser-guided weapons by day and night.
  • A two-seater version was developed as well. The back-seater has the HUD but not the associated head-level display, and as with first-generation two-seaters, there are no built-in cannon (although cannon pods can be carried).
  • The Mirage 2000-5 can also carry the oversized drop tanks developed for the Mirage 2000N, greatly extending its range.

In 1993, the AdA decided to upgrade 37 of their existing Mirage 2000s to the 2000-5 specification as a stopgap before the arrival of the Rafale in AdA service. The upgraded aircraft were redesignated Mirage 2000-5F, and became operational in 2000. They retained the old countermeasures system with the Serval/Sabre/Spirale units and did not receive the ICMS 2 system.

The AdA is now considering upgrades for the type, including the MIDS datalink, MICA IR support, and the Thales Topsight helmet-mounted display / sighting system.

[edit] Mirage 2000-5 Mark 2

Dassault extended the improvements of the Mirage 2000-5 a bit further with the Mirage 2000-5 Mark 2, which is an enhanced, fully multirole version of the Mirage 2000-5. It is currently the most advanced version of the Mirage 2000.

Features:

  • Thales RDY-2 radar. This radar system is similar in configuration to the original RDY, but features two new air-to-ground modes, including a high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging mode with a moving target indicator (MTI) capability to provide an all-weather, day/night targeting capability. The radar features low-probability-of-intercept (LPI) operation, with the output pattern varying in a seemingly random pattern that prevents an adversary RWR from recognizing that it has been targeted.
  • The high-power Modular Data Processing Unit (MDPU) designed for the Rafale.
  • A new Thales Totem 3000 INS with ring-laser gyros and GPS capability, providing much greater accuracy, higher reliability, and shorter alignment time replaces the older ULISS 52 system. It works in conjunction with a terrain-following system.
  • An improved, classified ICMS 3 digital countermeasures suite.
  • An on-board oxygen generation system (OBOGS).
  • The cockpit was updated as well, retaining the same general layout but with larger color displays and other modernizations. The Thales Topsight helmet-mounted display / sighting system is offered as an option.
  • The Mirage 2000-5 Mark 2 includes a datalink for the targeting of MICA ER missiles and can carry the Damocles targeting pod.
  • Future Upgrades: Thales AIDA visual identification pod; technology used in the Rafale will be also integrated into the Mirage 2000, including infrared and optical sensors for IFF and targeting. It will be used by AdA Mirage 2000-5Fs. Further development of the second-generation type is expected to include a GPS receiver, MIDS datalink, and unspecified long-range sensors.
  • Topsight E helmet-mounted sight

[edit] Mirage 2000E

"Mirage 2000E" was a blanket designation for a series of export variants of the Mirage 2000. These aircraft were fitted the M53-P2 engine and an enhanced "RDM+" radar, and all can carry the day-only ATLIS II laser targeting pod.

[edit] Mirage 2000M (Egypt)

Egypt was the first foreign buyer, ordering 16 single-seat Mirage 2000M and four Mirage 2000BM trainers in late 1981, with deliveries beginning in 1986. The Egyptians also purchased ATLIS II pods and a wide range of appropriate munitions, including Magic and Super 530 AAMs, AS-30L laser-guided ASMs, and Armat anti-radiation missiles.

[edit] Mirage 2000H (India)

Indian Air Force Mirage 2000H.

Indian Air Force Mirage 2000H.

India have acquired a total of 49 examples, including 42 single-seaters and 7 Mirage two-seaters. The IAF named the Mirage Vajra (Thunderbolt). India also purchased appropriate stores along with the fighters, including ATLIS II pods and laser-guided weapons.

  • Since India wanted the fighter quickly, the first part of an initial batch of 26 single-seaters and 4 two-seaters was shipped to the Indian Air Force (IAF) beginning in 1985 with the older M53-5 engines. These aircraft were given the designations of Mirage 2000H5 and Mirage 2000TH5.
  • The second part of this initial batch consisted of 10 more single-seaters with the M53-P2 engine, with these aircraft designated Mirage 2000H. All the first batch was reengined with the M53-P2, with the single-seaters re-designated "Mirage 2000H" and the two-seaters re-designated Mirage 2000TH.
  • A second batch of six Mirage 2000H single-seaters and three Mirage 2000TH two-seaters was shipped in 1987-1988.

Recent orders:

  • In 2004, the Indian government approved purchase of ten more Mirage 2000Hs, with these machines featuring improved avionics, particularly an upgraded RDM-7 radar.
  • The Mirage 2000-5 was the front-runner for a planned Indian Air Force 124+ fighter procurement in which it was competing with the Mikoyan MiG-35, F-16 Falcon and JAS 39 Gripen. However, Dassault announced that Mirage 2000 will be replaced by the Rafale as the contender for the deal since the Mirage 2000 production line is to be closed.
  • India has announced a $1.9 billion program to arm 52 of its Mirage 2000 aircraft with the MBDA ASRAAM dogfighting missile beginning in 2007. Installation will require new radar, electronic warfare equipment, and updates to the cockpit and data bus. Pilot helmets will require addition of a helmet-mounted sight. These will be the first Mirage aircraft to carry the British missile and Dassault, Thales, and MBDA are to participate in the effort[5].

[edit] Mirage 2000P (Peru)

Peru placed an order for 10 single-seat Mirage 2000Ps and 2 Mirage 2000DP trainers. The Peruvians ordered a set of munitions similar to that ordered by Egypt, along with ATLIS II targeting pods.

[edit] Mirage 2000-5EI (Taiwan, ROC)

ASTAC pod

ASTAC pod

In 1992, the Republic of China Air Force ordered 48 single-seat Mirage 2000-5EI interceptors and 12 Mirage 2000-5DI trainers, with introduction of the first squadron in 1997 and the last fighters delivered in 1999. The Taiwanese ordered a set of ASTAC electronic intelligence (ELINT) pods for their Mirages.

  • France announced in 1992 that it would offer Dassault Mirage 2000-5 fighters to Taiwan. The number of aircraft considered had been rumoured to be 120, but the deal was finalized as 60 aircraft (48 single-seat 2000-5EIs and 12 two-seat 2000-5DIs) on November 17 of the same year. This marks the first ROCAF purchase of French fighters since the arrival of 24 Dewoitine D.510C piston-engine monoplanes in 1937. The program was given the codename "Fei Lung" (Flying Dragon).
  • The ROCAF also obtained 960 MICA medium-range and 480 Magic II short-range air-to-air missiles from Matra. The former provides the Mirage with the BVR capability needed for its role as front-line interceptor. A number of centerline twin gun pods with DEFA 554 cannons were also acquired and fitted on the two-seaters, as they do not have an internal gun armament. Other support equipment, such as auxiliary fuel tanks, helmets, and G-suits, have also been procured.
  • The first batch of ROCAF Mirage 2000-5s, consisting of five aircraft, arrived at Hualien Harbor on the east coast of Taiwan by sea on 1997-05-06. After being unloaded, they were towed to Hualien AB, where they were unpacked and checked, and then flown to Hsinchu AB. Subsequent deliveries also followed the same procedure. The last ROCAF Mirage 2000-5 was delivered in an official ceremony on 1998-11-26.

All Mirage 2000-5s are operated by the 499th TFW at Hsinchu. The first unit to convert to the type, the 41st TFS, was commissioned on 1997-12-01. Subsequently the 42nd TFS was commissioned on 1998-11-26. The 499th TFW achieved the IOC (Initial Operational Capability) status on 2001-05-10, and the 48th TFS was commissioned on the same day.

On 2004-11-01, the 41st and 42nd TFSs were upgraded to the "Tactical Fighter Group" status, while the 48th TFS became the 48th Training Group, in the largest restructure undertaken by the ROCAF since 1999. At the same time, the original 11th TFG went into history. Each of the new TFG/TG is commanded by a Colonel, but the number of aircraft assigned is not much different from that for a Squadron. Although their official English designation is Tactical Fighter Group, the Chinese designation literally means Operations Group.

Weapon Testing & Exercises
  • On 1998-05-08, a two-seat DI fired one MICA missile and successfully hit a target drone 67 km away. It was the first launch of the said missile outside France. The second MICA live-firing exercise took place off the east coast of Taiwan on 2000-03-29, in which 2051 (right side image) fired a single MICA missile from its left inner pylon.
  • On 2004-07-21, two Mirage 2000-5s from the 2nd TFW landed on the wartime reserve runway located at the Jenteh section of Highway No. 1 as part of the annual Han Kuang No. 20 Exercise. Mirage 2000-5DI 2051, piloted by Maj. Wei-Kuang Chang and Lt. Col. Juei-Chi Duan, and 2054, piloted by Lt. Col. Bin-Fu Wu and Capt. Jien-Liang Chen, took off from their home base Hsinchu Air Base at 0540 hrs. 2051 landed on the highway at 0620 hrs, followed by 2054 at 0622 hrs. The two jets then taxied to the other end of the reserve runway to be refueled and re-armed with two Magic air-to-air missiles, respectively. At 0712 hrs, 2051 took off again and 2054 followed one minute later. Both landed at Hsinchu at 0736 hrs.

[edit] Mirage 2000-5EDA (Qatar)

In 1994, Qatar ordered nine single-seat Mirage 2000-5EDAs and three Mirage 2000-5DDA trainers, with initial deliveries starting in 1997.

[edit] Mirage 2000EAD/RAD (UAE)

In 1983, the UAE purchased 22 single-seat Mirage 2000EADs, 8 unique single-seat Mirage 2000RAD reconnaissance variants, and 6 Mirage 2000DAD trainers, for a total order of 36 machines. The order specified an Italian-made defensive avionics suite that delayed delivery of the first of these aircraft until 1989.

  • The Mirage 2000RAD reconnaissance variant does not have any built-in cameras or sensors, and the aircraft can still be operated in air combat or strike roles. The reconnaissance systems are implemented in pods, including the Thales "SLAR 2000" radar pod, Dassault "COR2" multi-camera pod with visible and infrared imaging capability, and the Dassault "AA-3-38 HAROLD" telescopic long-range optical camera pod. The UAE is the only nation operating such a specialized reconnaissance variant of the Mirage 2000 at this time.
Mirage 2000-9

Mirage 2000-9 is the export variant of Mirage 2000-5 Mk.2.

  • The UAE was the launch customer, ordering

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ロールス・ロイス plc (Public limited company) はGE・アビエーションに続き、世界で2番目に大きい航空機エンジンの製造会社である。防衛航空宇宙、艦船、発電等も手がける。

ロールス・ロイスは1971年に国営化され航空機エンジンの分野が長年、売上の大半を占めてきた。1973年、自動車部門を切り離した。1987年、サッチャー政権下で再び、民営化された。ロールス・ロイスの防衛航空宇宙部門は世界で16番目であり、2005年のグループの売上の21%を占める。民間航空機向けの売上は53%、船舶向けは17%、発電向けは8%を占める。

[編集] 歴史

ロールス・ロイスは1906年、ヘンリー・ロイスC.S.ロールスによって創業され、最初の航空機エンジンが製造されたのは1914年だった。

第1次世界大戦前の航空機エンジンの半分はロールス・ロイス製だった。1920年代末には航空機エンジンの売上はロールス・ロイス社の大部分を占めるようになった。ヘンリーロイスが最後に設計したマーリンは1935年に完成した。1931年のシュナイダー杯で時速400マイルの記録を樹立した。第2次世界大戦ではマーリンは連合国側の多数の航空機に搭載され、中でもバトル オブ ブリテンでは大活躍した。 マーリンは米国でも生産され、P51に搭載された。

[編集] 国有化と分割

トライスター向けのRB211の開発が暗礁に乗り上げた事により、開発費が増加して1971年、管理下に置かれる。当時の首相であったエドワード・ヒースは国有化する。1973年、自動車部門を切り離す。

[編集] 民営化と拡張

ロー ルス・ロイス社は1987年、サッチャー政権下において民営化された。1980年代民間航空機向けのエンジンへの参入を指向して17機種の異な るエンジンを供給するまでに成長した。同時期、民間航空機向けに供給されるエンジンはゼネラルエレクトリックは14機種、プラット&ホイットニー は10機種だった。

1988年、重工業で発電送電に強みを持つノーザンエンジニアリング産業を傘下に収めた。他社を次々に傘下に収め、業界再編を促す。サッチャー政権下の追い風もあり、当時、衰退しつつあった英国の重工業に再び、競争力を取り戻すようにリストラを行う。

1990年、BMWと合弁でBMW ロールス・ロイス社を設立、BR700エンジンを供給する。

[編集] アリソン エンジン社を買収

1994年、11月、米国の航空機エンジン製造会社であるアリソン エンジン社を傘下に収めたと発表した。ロールス・ロイスは予てより、アリソンの買収を目論んでいた。

アリソンを傘下に収めた事により、新たに民間機向けのエンジンが4機種増えた。それにより、一部の機種で重複する物がでてきたが、集約される。 アリソンを傘下に収めた事により、それまでアリソンが供給していた米軍向けの供給の存続が危ぶまれたが、アリソンとロールス・ロイスは安全保障を危険にはさらさないという主旨の共同声明を出している。[1]

エアバスA380プロトタイプ機に取り付けられたトレント900。A380はこのエンジンを4基搭載している。

エアバスA380プロトタイプ機に取り付けられたトレント900。A380はこのエンジンを4基搭載している。

[編集] 主な製品

[編集] 民間機

[編集] 旅客機

[編集] 地域航空

[編集] ヘリコプター

[編集] 防衛関連

[編集] 攻撃機

[編集] ヘリコプター

[編集] 輸送機

[編集] 練習機

[編集] 戦闘機

[編集] 無人機市場

[編集] 船舶向け

[編集] ガスタービン

[編集] ディーゼルエンジン

[編集] 推進器

[編集] 潜水艦

[編集] 流体軸受け

  • ミッチェル ベアリングス

[編集] 石油&ガス

[編集] ガスタービン

[編集] 圧縮機

[編集] 発電向け

[編集] ガスエンジン

[編集] 往復機関

[編集] 発電装置

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Rolls-Royce Group plc
Type Public (LSE: RR.)
Founded 1906 (as Rolls-Royce Limited)
1987 (privatised as plc)
Headquarters Flag of the United Kingdom Derby, England, UK
Key people Simon Robertson (Chairman)
Sir John Rose (CEO)
Industry Aerospace & Defence
Products Civil & military aero engines
Marine propulsion systems
Power generation equipment
Revenue £7,435 million (2007)
Operating income £514 million (2007)
Net income £600 million (2007)
Employees 38,000 (2007)
Website www.rolls-royce.com

Rolls-Royce plc (LSE: RR.) is a British aircraft engine maker, and the second-largest in the world, behind General Electric Aviation. The company has related businesses in the defence aerospace, marine and energy markets.

Rolls-Royce was nationalised in 1971, by which time aircraft engines had long been the most significant part of the business. The automobile company was separated in 1973 and the present Rolls-Royce plc was re-privatised in 1987. Rolls-Royce is, through its defence aerospace division, the world's 16th largest defence contractor.[1] Defence aerospace sales accounted for 21% of group sales in 2005, civil aerospace 53%, marine 17% and energy 8%.[2]

[edit] History

Rolls-Royce Limited was founded in 1906 by Henry Royce and C.S. Rolls, and produced its first aircraft engine in 1914.

Around half the aircraft engines used by the Allies in World War I were made by Rolls-Royce. By the late 1920s, aero engines made up most of Rolls-Royce's business. Henry Royce's last design was the Merlin aero engine, which came out in 1935 although he had died in 1933. This was a development subsequent to the R engine, which had powered a record-breaking Supermarine S6.B seaplane to almost 400mph in the 1931 Schneider Trophy. The Merlin powered many World War II aircraft: the British Hawker Hurricane, Supermarine Spitfire, De Havilland Mosquito (twin-engined), Avro Lancaster (4-engine), Vickers Wellington (2-engine); it also transformed the American P-51 Mustang into one of the best fighters of its time, its Merlin engine built by Packard under licence. Over 160,000 Merlin engines were produced.

In the post-World War II period Rolls-Royce made significant advances in gas turbine engine design and manufacture. The Dart and Tyne turboprop engines were particularly important, enabling airlines to cut journey times within several continents, whilst jet airliners were introduced on longer services. The Dart engine was used in Argosy, Avro 748 and its military variant the Andover, Friendship, Herald and Viscount aircraft, whilst the more powerful Tyne powered the Atlantic, Transall and the Vanguard. Many of these turboprops are still in service.

Rolls-Royce engines had traditionally borne numeric designations during development and then were assigned the name of a British river on delivery. The use of river names was introduced with the earliest Rolls jet engines to reflect their nature: a steady flow of power rather than the pulses of a piston engine. RB stands for "Rolls Barnoldswick", the latter a major ex-Rover facility bought by Rolls-Royce when it traded production of engines (the Rolls Royce Meteor) for production of the first Whittle engines.

Amongst the jet engines of this period was the [[Rolls-Royce auto-mobile which powers the Trident, BAC 1-11, Grumman Gulfstream II and Fokker F28. Military versions of the Spey powered the Buccaneer S2 for the RAF, the Phantom F4K and F4M, and the Nimrod. The Spey was licence built by Allison Engine Company as the TF41 for the A-7 Corsair II. Other types of military engines produced in the second half of the 20th Century include the Avon and Viper; these engines powered many of the British Aircraft of this period.

Also of this period was the Conway, a low (by today's standards) bypass ratio turbofan which was used on some Boeing 707s and Douglas DC-8s, and all Vickers VC10s as well as on the MkII variant of the Handley Page Victor bomber for the RAF.

During the late 1950s and '60s there was a significant rationalisation of the British aero-engine manufacturers, culminating in the merger of Rolls-Royce and Bristol Siddeley in 1966. Bristol Siddeley, which had itself resulted from the merger of Armstrong Siddeley and Bristol in 1959, and with its principal factory at Filton, near Bristol, had a strong base in military engines, including the Olympus, which was chosen for Concorde.

[edit] Nationalisation & separation

Having been selected as the sole engine supplier for the Lockheed L-1011 (TriStar), Rolls-Royce committed heavily to the RB211 engine, but its development was hampered by considerable problems and on February 4, 1971 Rolls-Royce went into administrative receivership. To save the company, Edward Heath's government nationalised it. The automotive division was separated from the aircraft engine division in 1973 as Rolls-Royce Motors and sold to Vickers. A side-effect of this affair was a change in accounting regulations to forbid the capitalisation of expenditure on research. This practise had resulted in Rolls Royce massively overstating its assets, thus disguising its financial difficulties until it was too late.

[edit] Privatisation & expansion

Rolls-Royce plc was privatised in 1987 under the government of Margaret Thatcher. The 1980s saw the introduction of a policy to offer an engine on every civil aircraft type, with the company's engines now powering 17 different airliners (and their variants) compared to General Electric's 14 and Pratt & Whitney's 10.

In 1988, Rolls-Royce acquired Northern Engineering Industries (NEI), a group of heavy engineering companies mainly associated with electrical generation and power management, based in the North East of England. The group included Clarke Chapman (Cranes), Reyrolle (now part of Siemens) and Parsons (now part of Siemens Steam turbines). The company was renamed Rolls Royce Industrial Power Group. It was sold off piecemeal over the next decade as the company re-focused on its core aero-engine operations following the recession of the early 1990s.

In 1990 BMW and Rolls-Royce established the BMW Rolls-Royce joint venture to produce the BR700 range of engines for regional and corporate jets, the most recent of which is the newly announced BR725. BMW subsequently withdrew from the company, and Rolls-Royce took full control of it in 2000, renaming it Rolls-Royce Deutschland.

[edit] Allison acquisition

In November 1994 Rolls-Royce announced its intention to acquire the Allison Engine Company, an American manufacturer of gas turbines and components for aviation, industrial and marine engines. Rolls-Royce had previously tried to buy the company when General Motors sold it in 1993, but GM opted for a management buyout instead. Owing to Allison's involvement in classified and export restricted technology, the 1994 acquisition was subject to investigation to determine the national security implications. On 27 March 1995 the Department of Defense announced that the "deal between Allison Engine Co. and Rolls-Royce does not endanger national security."[1] Rolls-Royce was, however, obliged to set up a proxy board to manage Allison and had also to set up a separate company, Allison Advanced Development Company, Inc., to manage classified programmes "that involve leading-edge technologies". In 2000 this restriction was replaced by a more flexible Special Security Arrangement.

The Allison acquisition brought four new engine types into the Rolls-Royce civil engine portfolio on seven platforms and several light aircraft applications. Allison is now known as Rolls-Royce Corporation, part of Rolls-Royce North America.

In 1996 Rolls-Royce and Airbus signed a Memorandum of Understanding specifiying the Trent 900 as the engine of choice for the then A3XX, now called the Airbus A380.

[edit] 1999 acquisitions

Rolls-Royce spent £1.063 billion on acquisitions in 1999. These were interests of Cooper Energy Services (with the effect of making the Cooper Rolls joint venture a wholly owned subsidiary of Rolls-Royce), Vickers, National Airmotive Corporation and BMW's share of BMW Rolls-Royce.

Rolls-Royce acquired Vickers plc for its marine businesses. Vickers had expanded this part of its business in the period leading up to the purchase, acquiring Kamewa, a manufacturer of waterjets, in 1996, and Ulstein, a major marine propulsion and engineering company, in 1998. Rolls-Royce sold Vickers Defence Systems (the other major Vickers area of business) to Alvis plc in 2002 which then became Alvis Vickers, then the largest armoured vehicle company in the UK.

Rolls-Royce has established a leading position in the corporate and regional airline sector through the development of the Tay engine, the Allison acquisition and the consolidation of the BMW Rolls-Royce joint venture. In 1999 BMW Rolls-Royce was renamed Rolls-Royce Deutschland and became a 100% owned subsidiary of Rolls-Royce plc.

Data Systems & Solutions was founded in 1999 as a joint venture between Rolls-Royce plc and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). In early 2006, SAIC exited the joint venture agreement, making Rolls-Royce plc the sole owner.

[edit] Recent events

On April 6, 2004 Boeing announced that it had selected both Rolls-Royce and General Electric to power its new 787. Rolls-Royce submitted the Trent 1000, a further development of that series. GE's offering is the GENX, a development of the GE90.

On June 13 Rolls Royce were awarded a £110m deal with the Ministry of Defence to supply engines for its C-130 Hercules transport aircraft for the next 5 years.[3]

In July 2006, Rolls-Royce reached an agreement to supply a new version of the Trent for the revised Airbus A350 (XWB) jetliner. Although details have yet to be released, it is likely that the so-called Trent XWB will be significantly larger than the Trent 1700, basically a throttle-push of the Trent 1000 intended for the original A350 proposal.

In October 2006 Rolls-Royce suspended production of its Trent 900 engine because of delays by Airbus on the delivery of the A380 superjumbo. Rolls-Royce announced in October 2007 that production of the Trent 900 had been re-started after a twelve month suspension caused by delays to the A380.[4] The plant in Derby, UK employs 11,000 workers and will continue to produce engines for Bombardier, Boeing, including those for the new 787 series and other Airbus aircraft such as the A330 and A340.

On the military side, Rolls-Royce has been (in cooperation with other European manufacturers) a major contractor for the RB199 which in several variants powers the Panavia Tornado, and also for the EJ200 engine for the Eurofighter Typhoon. Two modified RB199 engines also powered the EAP demonstrator which evolved into the Typhoon.

At the 2005 Paris Air Show Rolls Royce secured in excess of $1 billion worth of orders. The firm received $800m worth of orders from Air China to supply its 20 Airbus A330 jets[5].

On 18 June 2007, Rolls-Royce announced at the 2007 Paris Air Show that it had signed its biggest ever contract with Qatar Airways for the Trent XWB to power 80 A350 XWBs on order from Airbus worth $5.6 billion at list prices.[6] On 11 November 2007, another large contract was announced at the Dubai Airshow from Emirates Airline for Trent XWBs to power 50 A350-900 and 20 A350-1000 aircraft with 50 option rights. Due to be delivered from 2014, the order is potentially worth up to 8.4 billion US Dollars at list prices, including options.[7]

[edit] Current operations

Rolls-Royce's aerospace business makes commercial and military gas turbine engines for military, civil, and corporate aircraft customers worldwide. In the U.S., the company makes engines for regional and corporate jets, helicopters, and turboprop aircraft. Rolls-Royce also constructs and installs power generation systems. Its core gas turbine technology has created one of the broadest product ranges of aero-engines in the world, with 50,000 engines in service with 500 airlines, 2,400 corporate and utility operators and more than 100 armed forces, powering both fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft. Rolls-Royce Marine Power Operations Ltd (a subsidiary company) manufactures and tests nuclear reactors for Royal Naval submarines.

Rolls-Royce Trent 900 on the prototype Airbus A380. This aircraft carries four.

Rolls-Royce Trent 900 on the prototype Airbus A380. This aircraft carries four.
Rolls-Royce Pegasus schematic

Rolls-Royce Pegasus schematic

歡迎來到Bewise Inc.的世界,首先恭喜您來到這接受新的資訊讓產業更有競爭力,我們是提供專業刀具製造商,應對客戶高品質的刀具需求,我們可以協助客戶滿足您對產業的不同要求,我們有能力達到非常卓越的客戶需求品質,這是現有相關技術無法比擬的,我們成功的滿足了各行各業的要求,包括:精密HSS DIN切削刀具協助客戶設計刀具流程DIN or JIS 鎢鋼切削刀具設計NAS986 NAS965 NAS897 NAS937orNAS907 航太切削刀具,NAS航太刀具設計超高硬度的切削刀具醫療配件刀具設計汽車業刀具設計電子產業鑽石刀具木工產業鑽石刀具等等。我們的產品涵蓋了從民生刀具到工業級的刀具設計;從微細刀具到大型刀具;從小型生產到大型量產;全自動整合;我們的技術可提供您連續生產的效能,我們整體的服務及卓越的技術,恭迎您親自體驗!!

BW Bewise Inc. Willy Chen willy@tool-tool.com bw@tool-tool.com www.tool-tool.com skype:willy_chen_bw mobile:0937-618-190 Head &Administration Office No.13,Shiang Shang 2nd St., West Chiu Taichung,Taiwan 40356 http://www.tool-tool..com / FAX:+886 4 2471 4839 N.Branch 5F,No.460,Fu Shin North Rd.,Taipei,Taiwan S.Branch No.24,Sec.1,Chia Pu East Rd.,Taipao City,Chiayi Hsien,Taiwan

Welcome to BW tool world! We are an experienced tool maker specialized in cutting tools. We focus on what you need and endeavor to research the best cutter to satisfy users demand. Our customers involve wide range of industries, like mold & die, aerospace, electronic, machinery, etc. We are professional expert in cutting field. We would like to solve every problem from you. Please feel free to contact us, its our pleasure to serve for you. BW product including: cutting toolaerospace tool .HSS DIN Cutting toolCarbide end millsCarbide cutting toolNAS Cutting toolNAS986 NAS965 NAS897 NAS937orNAS907 Cutting Tools,Carbide end milldisc milling cutter,Aerospace cutting toolhss drillФрезерыCarbide drillHigh speed steelMilling cutterCVDD(Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamond )’PCBN (Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride) Core drillTapered end millsCVD Diamond Tools Inserts’PCD Edge-Beveling Cutter(Golden FingerPCD V-CutterPCD Wood toolsPCD Cutting toolsPCD Circular Saw BladePVDD End Millsdiamond tool Single Crystal Diamond Metric end millsMiniature end millsСпециальные режущие инструменты Пустотелое сверло Pilot reamerFraisesFresas con mango PCD (Polycrystalline diamond) ‘FreseElectronics cutterStep drillMetal cutting sawDouble margin drillGun barrelAngle milling cutterCarbide burrsCarbide tipped cutterChamfering toolIC card engraving cutterSide cutterNAS toolDIN or JIS toolSpecial toolMetal slitting sawsShell end millsSide and face milling cuttersSide chip clearance sawsLong end millsStub roughing end millsDovetail milling cuttersCarbide slot drillsCarbide torus cuttersAngel carbide end millsCarbide torus cuttersCarbide ball-nosed slot drillsMould cutterTool manufacturer.

Bewise Inc. www.tool-tool.com

ようこそBewise Inc.の世界へお越し下さいませ、先ず御目出度たいのは新たな

情報を受け取って頂き、もっと各産業に競争力プラス展開。

弊社は専門なエンドミルの製造メーカーで、客先に色んな分野のニーズ

豊富なパリエーションを満足させ、特にハイテク品質要求にサポート致します。

弊社は各領域に供給できる内容は:

(1)精密HSSエンドミルのR&D

(2)Carbide Cutting tools設計

(3)鎢鋼エンドミル設計

(4)航空エンドミル設計

(5)超高硬度エンドミル

(6)ダイヤモンドエンドミル

(7)医療用品エンドミル設計

(8)自動車部品&材料加工向けエンドミル設計

弊社の製品の供給調達機能は:

(1)生活産業~ハイテク工業までのエンドミル設計

(2)ミクロエンド

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模 具的报价与结算是模具估价后的延续和结果。从模具的估价到模具的报价,只是第一步,而模具的最终目的,是通过模具制造交付使用后的结算,形成最终模具的结 算价。在这个过程里,人们总是希望,模具估价=模具价格=模具结算价。而在实际操作中,这四个价并不完全相等,有可能出现波动误差值。这就是以下所要讨论 的问题。

当模具估价后,需要进行适当处理,整理成模具的报价,为签定模具加工合同做依据。通过反复洽谈商讨,最后形成双方均认可的模具价格,签订了合同。才能正式开始模具的加工。

一、模具估价与报价、报价与模具价格
模具估价后,并不能马上直接作为报价。一般说来,还要根据市场行情、客户心理、竞争对手、状态等因素进行综合分析,对估价进行适当的整理,在估价的基础上 增加10-30%提出第一次报价。经过讨价还价,可根据实际情况调低报价。但是,当模具的商讨报价低于估价的10%时,需重新对模具进行改进细化估算,在 保证保本有利的情况下,签订模具加工合同,最后确定模具价格。模具价格是经过双方认可且签订在合同上的价格。
这时形成的模具价格,有可能高于估价或低于估价。当商讨的模具价格低于模具的保本价进,需重新提出修改模具要求、条件、方案等,降低一些要求,以期可能降 低模具成本,重新估算后,再签订模具价格合同。应当指出,模具是属于科技含量较高的专用产品,不应当用低价,甚至是亏本价去迎合客户。而是应该做到优质优 价,把保证模具的质量、精度、寿命放在第一位,而不应把模具价格看得过重,否则,容易引起误导动作。追求模具低价,就较难保证模具的质量、精度、寿命。廉 价一般不是模具行业之所为。但是,当模具的制造与制品开发生产是同一核算单位或是有经济利益关系时,在这种情况下,模具的报价,应以其成本价作为报价。模 具的估价仅估
算模具的基本成本价部分,其它的成本费用、利润暂不考虑,待以后制品生产的利润再提取模具费附加值来作为补偿。但此时的报价不能作为真正的模具的价格,只 能是作为模具前期开发费用。今后,一旦制品开发成功,产生利润,应提取模具费附加值,返还给模具制造单位,两项合计,才能形成模具的价格。这时形成的模具 价格,有可能会高于第一种情况下的模具价格,甚至回报率很高,是原正常模具价格的几十倍,数百倍不等。当然,也有可能回报率等于零。

二、模具价格的地区差与时间差
这里还应当指出,模具的估价及价格,在各个企业、各个地区、国家;在不同的时期,不同的环境,其内涵是不同的,也就是存在着地区差和时间差。为什么会产生 价格差呢,这是因为:一方面各企业、各地区、国家的模具制造条件不一样,设备工艺、技术、人员观念、消费水准等各个方面的不同,产生在对模具的成本、利润 目标等估算不同,因而产生了不同的模具价格差。一般是较发达的地区、或科技含量高、设备投入较先进,比较规范大型的模具企业,他们的目标是质优而价高,而 在一些消费水平较低的地区,或科技含量较低,设备投入较少的中小型模具企业,其相对估算的模具价格要低一些。另一方面,模具价格还存在着时间差,即时效 差。不同的时间要求,产生不同的模具价格。这种时效差有两方面的内容:一是一付模具在不同的时间有不同的价格;二是不同的模具制造周期,其价格也不同。
三、模具报价单的填写
模具价格估算后,一般要以报价的形式向外报价。报价单的主要内容有:模具报价,周期,要求达到的模次(寿命),对模具的技术要求与条件,付款方式及结算方式以及保修期等。

模具的报价策略正确与否,直接影响模具的价格,影响到模具利润的高低,影响到所采用的模具生产技术管理等水平的发挥,是模具企业管理的最重要的,是否成功的体现!

四、模具的结算方式
模具的结算是模具设计制造的最终目的。模具的价格也以最终结算到的价格为准,即结算价。才是最终实际的模具价格。

模具的结算方式从模具设计制造一开始,就伴随着设计制造的每一步,每道工序在运行、设计制造到什么程序,结算方式就运行到什么方式。待到设计制造完成交付 使用,结算方式才会终结,有时,甚至还会运行一般时间。所有设计制造中的质量技术问题最终全部转化到经济结算方面来。可以说,经济结算是对设计制造的所有 技术质量的评价与肯定。

结算的方式,是从模具报价就开始提出,以签订模具制造合同开始之日,就与模具设计制造开始同步运行。反过来说,结算方式的不同,也体现了模具设计制造的差异和不同。

结算方式,各地区、各企业均有不同,但随着市场经济的逐步完善,也形成一定的规范和惯例。按惯例,结算方式一般有以下几种:

(1)“五五”式结算:即模具合同一签订开始之日,即预付模具价款50%,余50%待模具试模验收合格后,再付清。

这种结算方式,在早期的模具企业中比较流行。它的优缺点有以下:
1)50%的预付款一般不足于支付模具的基本制造成本,制造企业还要投入。也就是说,50%的预付款,还不能与整付模具成本运行同步。因此,对模具制造企业来说存在一定的投入风险。
2)试模验收合格后,即结算余款。使得模具保修费用与结算无关。
3)在结算50%余款时,由于数目款项较多,且模具已基本完工,易产生结算拖欠现象。
4)万一模具失败,一般仅退回原50%预付款。

(2)“六四”式结算:即模具合同一签订生效之日起,即预付模价款的60%,余40%,待模具试模合格后,再结清。
这种结算方式与第一种结算方式基本相同。只不过是在预付款上增加10%。这相对于模具制造企业有利一点。
(3)“三四三”式结算:即模具合同一签订生效之日,即预付模价款的30%,等参与设计会审,模具材料备料到位,开始加工时,再付40%模价款。余30%,等模具合格交付使用后,一周内付清。

这种结算方式,是目前比较流行的一种。这种结算方式的主要特点如下:
1)首期预付的30%模价款作为订金。
2)再根据会审,检查进度和可靠性,进行第二次40%的付款,加强了模具制造进度的监督。
3)余款30%,在模具验收合格后,再经过数天的使用期后,结算余款。这种方式,基本靠近模具的设计制造使用的同步运行。
4)万一模具失败,模具制造方,除返还全部预付款外,还要加付赔偿金。赔偿金一般是订金的1-2倍。
(4)提取制件生产利润的模具费附加值方式:即在模具设计制造时,模具使用方,仅需投入小部分的款项以保证模具制造的基本成本费用(或根本无需支付模具费用)。待模具制造交付使用,开始制件生产,每生产一个制件提取一部分利润返还给模具制造方,作为模具费。
这种方式,把模具制造方和使用方有机地联系在一起,形成利润一体化,把投资风险与使用效益紧密地联系起来,把技术与经济、质量与生产效益完全地挂钩在一 起,这样也最大限度地体现了模具的价值与风险。这种方式是目前一种横向联向的发展趋势。其主要特点是:充分发挥模具制造方和模具使用方的优势,资金投入比 较积极合理。但对于模具制造方来说,其风险较大,但回报率也较为可观。
模具的结算方式,还有很多,也不尺相同。但是都有一个共同点,即努力使模具的技术与经济指标有机地结合,产生双方共同效益。使得模具由估价到报价,由报价 到合同价格;由合同价格到结算价格,即形成真正实际的模具价格。实行优质优价。努力把模具价格与国际惯例接轨,不断向生产高、精、优模具方向努力,形成共 同良好的、最大限度的经济效益局面。这是模具设计制造使用的最终目标!

歡迎來到Bewise Inc.的世界,首先恭喜您來到這接受新的資訊讓產業更有競爭力,我們是提供專業刀具製造商,應對客戶高品質的刀具需求,我們可以協助客戶滿足您對產業的不同要求,我們有能力達到非常卓越的客戶需求品質,這是現有相關技術無法比擬的,我們成功的滿足了各行各業的要求,包括:精密HSS DIN切削刀具協助客戶設計刀具流程DIN or JIS 鎢鋼切削刀具設計NAS986 NAS965 NAS897 NAS937orNAS907 航太切削刀具,NAS航太刀具設計超高硬度的切削刀具醫療配件刀具設計汽車業刀具設計電子產業鑽石刀具木工產業鑽石刀具等等。我們的產品涵蓋了從民生刀具到工業級的刀具設計;從微細刀具到大型刀具;從小型生產到大型量產;全自動整合;我們的技術可提供您連續生產的效能,我們整體的服務及卓越的技術,恭迎您親自體驗!!

BW Bewise Inc. Willy Chen willy@tool-tool.com bw@tool-tool.com www.tool-tool.com skype:willy_chen_bw mobile:0937-618-190 Head &Administration Office No.13,Shiang Shang 2nd St., West Chiu Taichung,Taiwan 40356 http://www.tool-tool..com / FAX:+886 4 2471 4839 N.Branch 5F,No.460,Fu Shin North Rd.,Taipei,Taiwan S.Branch No.24,Sec.1,Chia Pu East Rd.,Taipao City,Chiayi Hsien,Taiwan

Welcome to BW tool world! We are an experienced tool maker specialized in cutting tools. We focus on what you need and endeavor to research the best cutter to satisfy users demand. Our customers involve wide range of industries, like mold & die, aerospace, electronic, machinery, etc. We are professional expert in cutting field. We would like to solve every problem from you. Please feel free to contact us, its our pleasure to serve for you. BW product including: cutting toolaerospace tool .HSS DIN Cutting toolCarbide end millsCarbide cutting toolNAS Cutting toolNAS986 NAS965 NAS897 NAS937orNAS907 Cutting Tools,Carbide end milldisc milling cutter,Aerospace cutting toolhss drillФрезерыCarbide drillHigh speed steelMilling cutterCVDD(Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamond )’PCBN (Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride) Core drillTapered end millsCVD Diamond Tools Inserts’PCD Edge-Beveling Cutter(Golden FingerPCD V-CutterPCD Wood toolsPCD Cutting toolsPCD Circular Saw BladePVDD End Millsdiamond tool Single Crystal Diamond Metric end millsMiniature end millsСпециальные режущие инструменты Пустотелое сверло Pilot reamerFraisesFresas con mango PCD (Polycrystalline diamond) ‘FreseElectronics cutterStep drillMetal cutting sawDouble margin drillGun barrelAngle milling cutterCarbide burrsCarbide tipped cutterChamfering toolIC card engraving cutterSide cutterNAS toolDIN or JIS toolSpecial toolMetal slitting sawsShell end millsSide and face milling cuttersSide chip clearance sawsLong end millsStub roughing end millsDovetail milling cuttersCarbide slot drillsCarbide torus cuttersAngel carbide end millsCarbide torus cuttersCarbide ball-nosed slot drillsMould cutterTool manufacturer.

Bewise Inc. www.tool-tool.com

ようこそBewise Inc.の世界へお越し下さいませ、先ず御目出度たいのは新たな

情報を受け取って頂き、もっと各産業に競争力プラス展開。

弊社は専門なエンドミルの製造メーカーで、客先に色んな分野のニーズ

豊富なパリエーションを満足させ、特にハイテク品質要求にサポート致します。

弊社は各領域に供給できる内容は:

(1)精密HSSエンドミルのR&D

(2)Carbide Cutting tools設計

(3)鎢鋼エンドミル設計

(4)航空エンドミル設計

(5)超高硬度エンドミル

(6)ダイヤモンドエンドミル

(7)医療用品エンドミル設計

(8)自動車部品&材料加工向けエンドミル設計

弊社の製品の供給調達機能は:

(1)生活産業~ハイテク工業までのエンドミル設計

(2)ミクロエンドミル~大型エンドミル供給

(3)小Lot生産~大量発注対応供給

(4)オートメーション整備調達

(5)スポット対応~流れ生産対応

弊社の全般供給体制及び技術自慢の総合専門製造メーカーに貴方のご体験を御待ちしております。 %

beeway 發表在 痞客邦 PIXNET 留言(0) 人氣()

Bewise Inc. www.tool-tool.com Reference source from the internet.

一, 结构钢特性:

08F 冷塑性好,易成形;焊接性能优良,时效敏感;切削加工性,冷拉正火态较退火态良好。

10 冷塑性好,板材正火或高温回后性能及佳,切削性,冷拉正火较退火态好,易焊接。

35 冷塑性尚好,各种焊接性能良好;切削性好;用于制作受力不大的机械零件及中小尺寸锻件。

45 中碳优质多强度钢,淬透性低,一般的正火态使用;只有要求高的零件才进行ML4行调质。冷塑性一般;切削性,退火,正火比调质时好;适于氢焊和氩孤焊,不适于气焊。

20Cr,渗碳钢,高硬度;韧性比15CrA差,渗碳时钢晶粒有长大趋向。

38CrA,调质钢,钢的最后热处理为淬火和回火;切削加工性好;焊接性差。

25CrMnSiA, 调质钢,在退火状态下塑性好,允许复杂形状的弯曲、锤拱、冲压;电弧焊和氢原子焊的焊接性好, 气焊和合格,焊接时,特是电弧焊和混合焊接时,开成裂纹的倾向不大;切削加工性尚好。40Cr,调质钢,淬火与回火后其强度与屈服点都比45钢高得多,淬 透性出比较好,零件形状复杂进在冷水中淬火易形成裂纹,故以在油中淬火为宜;有很大的回火脆性;当零件工作表面要求耐磨时还可以进行表面淬火或氰化处理。 冷变形时塑性中等,切削加工性尚好。

40CrNiMoA,调质钢,可以进行渗氮处理;在相当高的强度时还有很高的韧性;淬透性很高,可用作截面较大的零件;钢的焊接性差。冷变形塑性中等,为了改善钢的机械加工性能可用高温退火或等温退火。

65Mn,它是一种弹簧钢,最后热处理为淬火和回火;其强度较高,淬透性较大,脱碳倾向小,但有过热敏感性,易出现淬火裂纹,并有回火脆性。在退火状态下切削加工性尚好;焊接性好,冷变形塑性低,带材可供一般弯曲。

50CrVA, 合金弹簧钢,钢的最后热处理为淬火和回火;热处理后具有较好的韧性,高的比例极限和强度极限,具有高的疲劳强度,的比值也较高,并有高的淬透性(与 65Si2MnWA的淬透性相类似)与较低的过热敏感性;零件使用温度程300℃时,其弹性仍可保持。钢的切削加工尚好,冷变形时塑性低,焊接性差。

2.棒材机械性能:(抗拉强度)
状态 抗拉强度 硬度(HB)
08F 热轧 ≤131
08F 经热处理 30 18 35 60 — —
10 热轧 — — — — ≤137
经热处理 34 21 31 55 — —
热轧、锻制 32 18 30 55 — —
冷拉 45 — 8 50 — ≤187
冷拉钢退火 30 — 26 55 — ≤143
热轧 — — — — ≤143
经热处理 38 23 27 55 — —
热处理状态 — — — — — —
20 热轧 — — — — ≤156
经热处理 42 25 25 55 — —
供应状态 39 22 22 50 — —
热处理状态 — — — — — —
冷拉 52 — 7.5 40 — ≤207
冷拉钢退火 40 — 21 50 — ≤163
25 热轧 — — — — — ≤170
经热处理 46 28 23 50 9 —
供应状态 43 24 18 50 — —
热处理状态 — — — — — —
冷拉 55 — 7 40 — ≤217
冷拉钢退火 42 — 19 50 — ≤170
35 热轧 — — — — ≤187
经热处理 54 32 20 45 7 —
冷拉 60 — 6.5 35 — ≤229
冷拉钢退火 48 — 15 45 — ≤187

3.板材机械性能:

牌号 状态 厚度 抗拉强度
08F Z 0.2~0.4 28~37
08F S P 0.2~0.4 28~39
08F Z S P 4~60 ≥30
10 Z 0.2~0.4 30~42
10 S P 0.2~0.4 30~44
10 Z S P 0.2~0.4 ≥34
15 Z 0.2~4.0 34~46
15 S P 0.2~4.0 34~48
20 Z 0.2~4.0 36~50
20 S P 0.2~4.0 36~51
20 Z S P 4~60 ≥42

二、不锈钢材料特性:

1、铁素体型不锈钢:其含Cr量高,具有良好而 性及高温抗氧化性能。
2、 奥氏体不锈钢:典型牌号如/Cr18Ni9,/Cr18Ni9T1无磁性,耐蚀性能良好,温强度及高温抗氧化性能好,塑性好,冲击韧性好,且无缺口效应, 焊接性优良,因而广泛使用。这种钢一般强度不高,屈服强度低,且不能通过热处理强化,但冷压,加工后,可使抗拉强度高,且改善其弹性,但其在高温下冷拉获 得的强度易化。不宜用于承受高载荷。
3、马氏全不锈钢:
典型如2Cr13,GX-8,具磁性,消震性优良,导热性好,具高强度和屈服极限,热处理强化后具良好综合机械性能。加含碳量多,焊后需回为处理以消除应力、高温冷却易形成8氏体,因此锻后要缓冷,并应立即进行回
火。主要用于承载部件。
例:
10Cr18Ni9 它是一种奥氏体不钢,淬火不能强化,只能消除冷作硬化和获得良好的抗蚀,淬火冷却必须在水是进行,以保证得到最好的抗蚀性;在900℃以下有稳定的抗氧化 性。适于各种方法焊接;有晶间腐蚀倾向,零件长期在腐蚀介质、水中及蒸汽介质中工作时可能遭受晶界腐蚀破坏;钢淬火后冷变形塑性高,延伸性能良好,但切削 加工性较差。

1Cr18Ni9 它是标准的18-8型奥氏体不锈钢,淬火炒能强化,但此时具有良好的耐蚀性和冷塑性变形性能;钢因塑性和韧性很高,切削性较差;适于各种方法焊接;由于含碳量较0Cr18ni9钢高,对晶界腐蚀敏感性较
焊接后需热处理,一般不宜作耐腐蚀的焊接件;在850℃以下空气介质、以及750℃以下航空燃料燃烧产物的气氛中肯有较稳定的抗氧化性。

Cr13Ni4Mn9 它属奥氏体不锈耐热钢,淬火不能强化,钢在淬火状态下塑性很高,可时行深压延及其它类型的冷冲压;钢的切削加工性较差;用点焊和滚焊焊接的效果良好,经过焊接后必须进行热处理;在大气中具有高
耐蚀性;易产晶界腐蚀,故在超过450的腐蚀介质是为宜采用;在750~800℃以下的热空气中具有稳定的抗氧化性。
1Cr13 它属于铁素体-马氏体型为锈钢,在淬火回火后使用;为提高零件的耐磨性,疲劳性能及抗腐蚀性可渗氮、氰化;淬火及抛光后在湿性大气、蒸汽、淡水、海水、和自来水中具有足够的抗腐蚀性,在室温下的硝酸
中有较好的安定性;在750℃温度以下具有稳定的抗氧化性。退火状态下的钢的塑性较高,可进行深压延钢、冲压、弯曲、卷边等冷加工;气焊和电弧焊结果还满意;切削加工性好,抛光性能优良;钢锻造后冷并应立
即进行回火处理。

2Cr13 它属于马氏体型不锈钢,在淬火回火后使用;为提高零件的耐磨性耐腐蚀性、疲劳性能及抗蚀性可渗氮、氰化;淬火回火后钢的强度、硬度均较

1Cr13钢高,抗腐蚀性与耐热性稍低;在700℃温度以下的空气介质中仍有稳定的抗氧化性。钢的焊接性和退火状态下塑性虽比不上1Cr13 ,但仍满意;切削加工性好;抛光性能优良;钢在锻造后应缓冷,并立即进行回火
处理。

3Cr13 它属于马氏体型不锈钢,在淬火回火后使用,耐腐蚀性和在700℃以下的热稳定性均比1Cr13 ,2Cr13低,但强度、硬度,淬透性和热强性都较高。冷加工性和焊接性不良,焊后应立即热处理;在退火后有较好的切削性;在锻造后应缓冷,并应立即进行回火处理。

9Cr18 它属于高碳含铬马氏体不锈钢,淬火后具有高的硬度和耐磨性;对海水,盐水等介质尚能抗腐蚀;钢经退火后有很好的切削性;由于会发生硬化和应力裂纹,不适于 焊接;为了避免锻后产生裂纹,必须缓慢冷却(最好在炉中冷却),在热态下,将零件转放入700~725℃的炉中进行回火处理。

三、铝合金:
强度/质量大,工艺性好,或用于压力制造及铸造,焊接,目前广泛用于飞机、发动机各种结构上。
1、变形铝合金:
1.1 防锈铝:
A1-Mn 及A1-Mg系合金(LF21、LF2、LF3、LF6、LF10)属于防锈铝,其特点是不能热处理强化,只能用冷作硬化强化,强度低、塑性高、压力加工 性良好,有良下的抗蚀性及焊接性。特别适用于制造受轻负荷的深压延零件,焊接零件和在腐蚀介质中工作的零件。

1.2 硬铝:
LY系列合金元素要含量小的塑性好,强度低;如LY1,LY10,含金元素及Mg,Cn适中者,强度、塑性中高;如LY11;金中Cn,Mg含量高则强度高,可用于作承动构件;如LY12,LY2,LY4;

LC 系列这超硬铝,强度高,但静疲劳性能差
LY11,LY17 为耐热铝,高温强度不太多,但高温时蠕度强度高。

1.3 锻铝:
LD2 具有高塑性及腐蚀稳定性,易锻造,但强度较低;LD5,LD6,LD10强度好,易于作高负载锻件及模锻件;LD7;LD8有较高
耐热性,用于高温零件,具有高的机械性能和冲压工艺性。
2、铸造铝合金:
1). 低强度合金:ZL-102 ; ZL-303
2). 中强度合金:ZL-101 ; ZL-103 ; ZL-203 ;ZL-302
3). 中强度耐热合金:ZL-401
4). 高强度合金:ZL-104 ;ZL-105
5). 高强度耐热合金:ZL-201 ;ZL-202
6). 高强度耐蚀合金:ZL301

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Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault ship USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers

Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault ship USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers

An aircraft carrier is a warship designed with a primary mission of deploying and recovering aircraft, acting as a sea-going airbase. Aircraft carriers thus allow a naval force to project air power great distances without having to depend on local bases for staging aircraft operations. They have evolved from wooden vessels used to deploy a balloon into nuclear powered warships that carry dozens of fixed and rotary wing aircraft.

Balloon carriers were the first ships to deploy manned aircraft, used during the 19th and early 20th century, mainly for observation purposes. The 1903 advent of fixed wing airplanes was followed in 1910 by the first flight of such an aircraft from the deck of a US Navy cruiser. Seaplanes and seaplane tender support ships, such as HMS Engadine, followed. The development of flat top vessels produced the first large fleet ships. This evolution was well underway by the mid 1920s, resulting in ships such as the HMS Hermes, Hōshō, and the Lexington class aircraft carriers.

World War II saw the first large scale use and further refinement of the aircraft carrier, spawning several types. Escort aircraft carriers, such as USS Barnes, were built only during World War II. Although some were purpose built, most were converted from merchant ships, and were a stop-gap measure in order to provide air support for convoys and amphibious invasions. Light aircraft carriers, such as USS Independence represented a larger, more "militarized" version of the escort carrier concept. Although the light carriers usually carried the same size air groups as escort carriers, they had the advantage of higher speed as they had been converted from cruisers under construction rather than civilian merchant ships.

Wartime emergencies also saw the creation or conversion of other, unconventional aircraft carriers. CAM ships, like the SS Michael E, were cargo carrying merchant ships which could launch but not retrieve fighter aircraft from a catapult. These vessels were an emergency measure during World War II as were Merchant aircraft carriers (MACs), such as MV Empire MacAlpine, another emergency measure which saw cargo-carrying merchant ships equipped with flight decks. Battlecarriers were created by the Imperial Japanese Navy to partially compensate for the loss of carrier strength at Midway.[citation needed] Two of them were made from Ise class battleships during late 1943. The aft turrets were removed and replaced with a hangar, deck and catapult. The heavy cruiser Mogami concurrently received a similar conversion. This "half and half" design was an unsuccessful compromise, being neither one thing nor the other. Submarine aircraft carriers, such as the French Surcouf, or the Japanese I-400 class submarines, which were capable of carrying 3 Aichi M6A Seiran aircraft, were first built in the 1920s, but were generally unsuccessful at war. Modern navies that operate such ships treat aircraft carriers as the capital ship of the fleet, a role previously played by the battleship. The change, part of the growth of air power as a significant part of warfare, took place during World War II. This change was driven by the superior range, flexibility and effectiveness of carrier-launched aircraft.

Following the war, the scope of carrier operations continued to increase in size and importance. The Supercarrier, typically displacing 75,000 tonnes or greater has been the pinnacle of carrier development since their introduction. Most are powered by nuclear reactors and form the core of a fleet designed to operate far from home. Amphibious assault carriers, such as USS Tarawa or HMS Ocean, which serve the purpose of carrying and landing Marines and operate a large contingent of helicopters for that purpose. They have a secondary capability to operate VSTOL aircraft. Also known as "commando carriers" or "helicopter carriers".

Lacking the firepower of other warships, carriers by themselves are considered vulnerable to attack by other ships, aircraft, submarines or missiles and therefore travel as part of a carrier battle group (CVBG) for their protection. Unlike other types of capital ships in the 20th century, aircraft carrier designs since World War II have been effectively unlimited by any consideration save budgetary, and the ships have increased in size to handle the larger aircraft: The large, modern Nimitz class of United States Navy carriers has a displacement nearly four times that of the World War II-era USS Enterprise yet its complement of aircraft is roughly the same, a consequence of the steadily increasing size of military aircraft over the years.[citation needed]

[edit] History and milestones

Though aircraft carriers are given their definition with respect to fixed-wing aircraft, the first known instance of using a ship for airborne operations occurred in 1806, when the British Royal Navy's Lord Thomas Cochrane launched kites from the 32-gun frigate HMS Pallas in order to drop propaganda leaflets on the French territory.[citation needed]

[edit] Balloon carriers

Main article: Balloon carrier
The Union Army balloon Washington aboard the George Washington Parke Custis, towed by the tug Coeur de Lion.

The Union Army balloon Washington aboard the George Washington Parke Custis, towed by the tug Coeur de Lion.

On 12 July 1849, the Austrian Navy ship Vulcano launched a manned hot air balloon in order to drop bombs on Venice, although the attempt failed due to contrary winds.[1]

Later, during the American Civil War, about the time of the Peninsula Campaign, gas-filled balloons were being used to perform reconnaissance on Confederate positions. The battles soon turned inland into the heavily forested areas of the Peninsula, however, where balloons could not travel. A coal barge, the George Washington Parke Custis, was cleared of all deck rigging to accommodate the gas generators and apparatus of balloons. From the GWP Prof. Thaddeus S. C. Lowe, Chief Aeronaut of the Union Army Balloon Corps, made his first ascents over the Potomac River and telegraphed claims of the success of the first aerial venture ever made from a water-borne vessel. Other barges were converted to assist with the other military balloons transported about the eastern waterways. It is only fair to point out in deference to modern aircraft carriers that none of these Civil War crafts had ever taken to the high seas.

Balloons launched from ships led to the development of balloon carriers, or balloon tenders, during World War I, by the navies of Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Russia, and Sweden. About ten such "balloon tenders" were built, their main objective being aerial observation posts. These ships were either decommissioned or converted to seaplane tenders after the war.

[edit] Seaplane carriers

Main article: Seaplane carrier
The first seaplane carrier, the French La Foudre (right, with hangar and crane), with one of her Canard Voisin seaplanes taking off, during tactical exercises in June 1912.

The first seaplane carrier, the French La Foudre (right, with hangar and crane), with one of her Canard Voisin seaplanes taking off, during tactical exercises in June 1912.

The invention of the seaplane in March 1910 with the French Le Canard led to the earliest development of a ship designed to carry airplanes, albeit equipped with floats: in December 1911 appears the French Navy La Foudre, the first seaplane carrier, and the first known carrier of airplanes. Commissioned as a seaplane tender, and carrying float-equipped planes under hangars on the main deck, from where they were lowered on the sea with a crane, she participated in tactical exercises in the Mediterranean in 1912. La Foudre was further modified in November 1913 with a 10 meter long flat deck to launch her seaplanes.[2]

HMS Hermes, temporarily converted as an experimental seaplane carrier in April-May 1913, is also one of the first seaplane carriers, and the first experimental seaplane carrier of the British Navy. She was originally laid down as a merchant ship, but was converted on the building stocks to be a seaplane carrier for a few trials in 1913, before being converted again to a cruiser, and back again to a seaplane carrier in 1914. She was sunk by a German submarine in October 1914. The first seaplane tender of the US Navy was the USS Mississippi, converted to that role in December 1913.[3]

Many cruisers and capital ships of the inter-war years often carried a catapult launched seaplane for reconnaissance and spotting the fall of the guns. It was launched by a catapult and recovered by crane from the water after landing. These were highly successful during World War II; there were many notable successes early in the war as shown by HMS Warspite’s float equipped Swordfish during the Second Battle of Narvik in 1940, where it spotted for the guns of the British warships, ensuring all seven German destroyers were sunk, and sinking the German submarine U-64 with its own bombs.[4] The Japanese Rufe floatplane derived from the Zero was a formidable fighter with only a slight loss in flight performance, one of their pilots scored 26 kills in the A6M2-N Rufe; a score only bettered by a handful of American pilots throughout WW2.[citation needed] Other Japanese seaplanes launched from tenders and warships sank merchant ships and small-scale ground attacks. The culmination of the type was the American 300+ mph (480 km/h) Curtiss SC Seahawk which was actually a fighter aircraft like the Rufe in addition to a two-seat gunnery spotter and transport for an injured man in a litter.[citation needed]Spotter seaplane aircraft on U.S. Navy cruisers and battleships were in service until 1949. Seaplane fighters were considered poor combat aircraft compared to their carrier-launched brethren; they were slower due to the drag of their pontoons or boat hulls. Contemporary propeller-driven, land-based fighter aircraft were much faster (450-480 mph / 720-770 km/h as opposed to 300-350 mph / 480-560 km/h) and more heavily armed.[citation needed] The Curtiss Seahawk only had two 0.50 inch (12.7 mm) calibre machine guns compared to four 20 mm cannon in the Grumman F8F Bearcat or four 0.50 (12.7 mm) cal machine guns plus two 20 mm cannon in the Vought F4U Corsair. Jet aircraft of just a few years later were faster still (500+ mph) and still better armed, especially with the development of air to air missiles in the early to mid 1950s.

[edit] Genesis of the flat-deck carrier


As heavier-than-air aircraft developed in the early 20th century various navies began to take an interest in their potential use as scouts for their big gun warships. In 1909 the French inventor Clément Ader published in his book "L'Aviation Militaire" the description of a ship to operate airplanes at sea, with a flat flight deck, an island superstructure, deck elevators and a hangar bay.[5] That year the US Naval Attaché in Paris sent a report on his observations.[6]

Ely takes off fromUSS Birmingham, 14 November 1910.

Ely takes off from
USS Birmingham, 14 November 1910.

A number of experimental flights were made to test the concept. Eugene Ely was the first pilot to launch from a stationary ship in November 1910. He took off from a structure fixed over the forecastle of the US armored cruiser USS Birmingham at Hampton Roads, Virginia and landed nearby on Willoughby Spit after some five minutes in the air.

Ely lands on USS Pennsylvania, 18 January 1911.

Ely lands on USS Pennsylvania,
18 January 1911.

On January 18, 1911 he became the first pilot to land on a stationary ship. He took off from the Tanforan racetrack and landed on a similar temporary structure on the aft of USS Pennsylvania anchored at the San Francisco waterfront—the improvised braking system of sandbags and ropes led directly to the arrestor hook and wires described above. His aircraft was then turned around and he was able to take off again. Commander Charles Rumney Samson, RN, became the first airman to take off from a moving warship on May 2, 1912. He took off in a Short S27 from the battleship HMS Hibernia while she steamed at 10.5 knots (19 km/h) during the Royal Fleet Review at Weymouth.

[edit] World War I

The Japanese seaplane carrier Wakamiya conducted the world's first naval-launched air raids in September 1914.

The Japanese seaplane carrier Wakamiya conducted the world's first naval-launched air raids in September 1914.

The first strike from a carrier against a land target as well as a sea target took place in September 1914 when the Imperial Japanese Navy seaplane carrier Wakamiya conducted the world's first naval-launched air raids[7] from Kiaochow Bay during the Battle of Tsingtao in China.[8] The four Maurice Farman seaplanes bombarded German-held land targets (communication centers and command centers) and damaged a German minelayer in the Tsingtao peninsula from September until November 6, 1914, when the Germans surrendered.[9] On the Western front the first naval air raid occurred on December 25, 1914 when twelve seaplanes from HMS Engadine, Riviera and Empress (cross-channel steamers converted into seaplane carriers) attacked the Zeppelin base at Cuxhaven. The attack was not a complete success, although a German%

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球 头铣刀已广泛应用于具有复杂几何形状的工件三维表面加工。在各种类型的球头铣刀中,具有平前刀面的球头铣刀具有结构简单、易于设计制造、便于重磨等特 点。为了研究平前刀面球头铣刀的切削性能,建立在不同切削条件下该球头铣刀的切削力、扭矩和切削功率的计算机预报模型,首先必须对该球头铣刀的几何参数进 行分析研究。本文拟对平前刀面球头铣刀的几何角度——包括刀刃参数方程、法向前角、刃倾角、主偏角等作一分析。

  平前刀面球头铣刀可看作由圆柱体和半圆球体两部分构成,其刀刃则由球面曲线和圆柱螺旋线共同构成。

   OU-XUYUZU是与球头铣刀固联的刀具坐标系,ZU轴与铣刀中心线重合,坐标原点OU为半圆球的中心,在初始切削位置,XU轴为刀刃在垂直于ZU轴 的平面内的投影在原点处的切线。图中的A-A平面即为该球头铣刀的前刀面,该平面与YUOUZU坐标平面垂直且与XUOUZU坐标平面相交成gn角。引入 前刀面上的转角参数w,当圆球半径为R时,球面上任意一点的坐标可表示为

  根据式(1),刀刃上任一点的切线矢量和切线单位矢量0可分别表示为
  根据式(3),可知刀刃上该点的法剖面方程为
  coswXu+singnsinwYu+cosgnsinwZu+D=0 (4)
  该球头铣刀的前刀面方程为
  -ctggnYu+ZU+R=0 (5)
  此时,刀刃上该点的基面方程为
  singn(1-cosw)Xu-sinwYu=0 (6)
  将方程(4)、(5)联立,求出法剖面与铣刀前刀面的交线,并化简为单位矢量,则有
  将方程(4)、(6)联立,求出法剖面与铣刀基面的交线,并化简为单位矢量,则有
  刀刃上该点的法向前角为方程(7)、(8)所代表的两单位矢量间的夹角,即

  式(9)表明,这种平前刀面球头铣刀的圆球部分刀刃上的任一点均具有相同的法向前角,其大小与平前刀面与XUOUZU坐标平面的交角相等。

  y角为刀刃上一点在XUOUYU平面上的投影与坐标原点的连线与XU坐标轴之间的夹角,f角为刀刃上任意点的矢径到XUOUYU平面的转角,y和f可分别表示为

  tany=Yu/Xu=singn(1-cosw)/sinw (10)
  sinf=-Zu/R=sin2g n+cos2gncosw (11)

  矢量是刀刃上该点通过半球顶点的大圆上的切线,即刀刃上该点的基面与切削平面的交线,化简为单位矢量后可写成

  根据定义,刀刃上该点的刃倾角ls是0与0间的夹角,即
  cosls0·0=sinfcosycosw+sinfsinysingnsinw+cosfcosgnsinw (13)
  将式(10)、(11)变换后代入式(13),整理化简后有
  cosls=cosy (14)
  由式(14)可知,刀刃上任一点的刃倾角ls等于y角,即
  ls=y=arctan[singn(1-cosw)/sinw] (15)
  根据定义,刀刃在该点处的主偏角Kr可表示为
  Kr=(p/2)-f=(p/2)-arcsin(sin2gn+cos2gncosw) (16)

  由以上分析可知,这种平前刀面球头铣刀的刀刃曲线方程是一个以前刀面上转角w为变量的简单参数方程;该球头铣刀球头部分的法向前角恒定不变,其大小等于前刀面倾斜角;该球头铣刀的刃倾角和主偏角也可简单表示为前刀面上转角w的函数。

歡迎來到Bewise Inc.的世界,首先恭喜您來到這接受新的資訊讓產業更有競爭力,我們是提供專業刀具製造商,應對客戶高品質的刀具需求,我們可以協助客戶滿足您對產業的不同要求,我們有能力達到非常卓越的客戶需求品質,這是現有相關技術無法比擬的,我們成功的滿足了各行各業的要求,包括:精密HSS DIN切削刀具協助客戶設計刀具流程DIN or JIS 鎢鋼切削刀具設計NAS986 NAS965 NAS897 NAS937orNAS907 航太切削刀具,NAS航太刀具設計超高硬度的切削刀具醫療配件刀具設計汽車業刀具設計電子產業鑽石刀具木工產業鑽石刀具等等。我們的產品涵蓋了從民生刀具到工業級的刀具設計;從微細刀具到大型刀具;從小型生產到大型量產;全自動整合;我們的技術可提供您連續生產的效能,我們整體的服務及卓越的技術,恭迎您親自體驗!!

BW Bewise Inc. Willy Chen willy@tool-tool.com bw@tool-tool.com www.tool-tool.com skype:willy_chen_bw mobile:0937-618-190 Head &Administration Office No.13,Shiang Shang 2nd St., West Chiu Taichung,Taiwan 40356 http://www.tool-tool..com / FAX:+886 4 2471 4839 N.Branch 5F,No.460,Fu Shin North Rd.,Taipei,Taiwan S.Branch No.24,Sec.1,Chia Pu East Rd.,Taipao City,Chiayi Hsien,Taiwan

Welcome to BW tool world! We are an experienced tool maker specialized in cutting tools. We focus on what you need and endeavor to research the best cutter to satisfy users demand. Our customers involve wide range of industries, like mold & die, aerospace, electronic, machinery, etc. We are professional expert in cutting field. We would like to solve every problem from you. Please feel free to contact us, its our pleasure to serve for you. BW product including: cutting toolaerospace tool .HSS DIN Cutting toolCarbide end millsCarbide cutting toolNAS Cutting toolNAS986 NAS965 NAS897 NAS937orNAS907 Cutting Tools,Carbide end milldisc milling cutter,Aerospace cutting toolhss drillФрезерыCarbide drillHigh speed steelMilling cutterCVDD(Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamond )’PCBN (Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride) Core drillTapered end millsCVD Diamond Tools Inserts’PCD Edge-Beveling Cutter(Golden FingerPCD V-CutterPCD Wood toolsPCD Cutting toolsPCD Circular Saw BladePVDD End Millsdiamond tool Single Crystal Diamond Metric end millsMiniature end millsСпециальные режущие инструменты Пустотелое сверло Pilot reamerFraisesFresas con mango PCD (Polycrystalline diamond) ‘FreseElectronics cutterStep drillMetal cutting sawDouble margin drillGun barrelAngle milling cutterCarbide burrsCarbide tipped cutterChamfering toolIC card engraving cutterSide cutterNAS toolDIN or JIS toolSpecial toolMetal slitting sawsShell end millsSide and face milling cuttersSide chip clearance sawsLong end millsStub roughing end millsDovetail milling cuttersCarbide slot drillsCarbide torus cuttersAngel carbide end millsCarbide torus cuttersCarbide ball-nosed slot drillsMould cutterTool manufacturer.

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涂层技术是提升刀具性能的主要手段之一。通过涂层可以提高切削刀具抗各种磨损的能力,延长了刀具的寿命,提高了被加工零件的表面精度,也提高了切削速度和进给速度,从而提高金属切削效率。本期话题,主要讨论刀具涂层技术的最新进展情况和发展前景。

涂层刀具的应用现状及发展趋势

涂层技术是提升刀具性能的主要手段之一。通过涂层提高了切削刀具抗各种磨损的能力,延长了刀具的寿命,提高了被加工零件的表面精度,也提高了切 削速度和进给速度,从而提高了金属切削效率。今天,在切削刀具主流材料的硬质合金中,涂层硬质合金刀具占了80%,而其中CVD(化学涂层)又占了60% ~65%,其余为PVD(物理涂层)。


在CVD涂层方面,包括TiCN、TiC、TiN、ZrCN和Al2O3等各种 化合物的多层复合涂层对改善涂层的综合性能,如结合强度、韧性、耐磨性和抗磨性及耐腐蚀性具有良好的效果。现在典型的VCDTiN(外层)+ Al2O3(中层)+TiCN(内层)多层式结构正在从涂层工艺上和涂膜的厚度上得到进一步改善。MTCVD(中温化学涂层)因有较低的工艺温度和较快的 沉积速率使得涂层与基体分界面上的脆性η相最小化,同时减少了在高温CVD涂层中常见的由高温导致的拉伸裂纹,因此,MTCVD TiCN涂层已成为CVD多层涂层中的一个主要构成,这种MTVCD已用于α- Al2O3涂层,如ISCAR的α-IC9150、α-IC9250、α-IC9350和α-IC4100等,提升了涂层与基体的结合强度和抗后面磨损、 前面磨损和抗粘附的能力。
在PVD涂层方面,也从单一的TiN或TiCN或TiAlN涂层发展到现在的复合涂层即硬涂层+软涂层。为适应更高切削 速度和干式切削的要求,涂层刀具的红硬性成为近几年PVD技术的开发热点。TiAlN的改进涂层AlTiN提高了薄膜中Al的含量(Al含量大于 50%),提升了涂层的红硬性、化学稳定性和抗氧化的性能,如ISCAR的Al-IC910(加工铸铁和钢)、Al-IC900、Al-IC930(加工 钢、不锈钢、硬钢、铸铁、高温合金等)。

现代刀具涂层发展的一个重要特征就是复合化,为了提高其综合性能,涂层材料复合、涂层层复合以及 CVD与PVD复合,如ISCAR的DT7150(K05-K25)通过MTCVD Al2O3和PVD TiAlN复合涂层,提高了材质的综合性能,用于高速加工灰铸铁和球墨铸铁。而多样化是刀具涂层发展的另一个趋势,有各种氮化物、氧化物涂层材料,还有 TiB、SN涂层、金刚石涂层、立方氮化硼涂层等等。多样化的深层次原因是专业化,即针对不同的需求采用不同的涂层,并能对涂层的组分、百分比、结构及厚 度在更大范围内加以控制和改变,以适应不同的被加工材料和不同的切削条件,从而显著地提高刀具的切削性能。如CrAlN涂层,以Cr元素替代Ti元素,具 有3200HV硬度和1100℃的氧化温度,与TiAlN相比韧性更好,更适合断续切削和难加工材料的加工;以Si元素代替Al元素的涂层可获得用于硬切 削的TiSiN,也可获得有润滑性的CrSiN,更适合用于铝、不锈钢等粘附性强的材料加工。此外,涂层材料的细微化是现代刀具涂层发展的另一个令人关注 的趋势,纳米复合涂层正在越来越多的地方得到应用。在未来,刀具涂层将是一个系统的概念,即刀具涂层必须根据不断变化的现代切削应用条件来进行系统的组 合,这是一种与传统观念中的“在刀具上涂覆一层薄膜”截然不同且复杂得多的系统工程方法,这需要我们进行系统思考。


刀具涂层进展概况

现代切削面临着不断发展的高速、高效、高精加工要求和愈来愈多的高强度、高韧性、难切削等高能级材料,加之硬加工、干切削等切削要求日新月异, 使得切削刀材料难以满足日趋复杂的综合切削性能要求。若在材料的整体性能上去满足要求,不仅在资源的利用上极不经济,同时在材料技术方面也是高难度,甚至 是难以达到的。考虑到切削过程表面作用是第一性的特点,就可通过材料表面改性技术的方法来赋予切削刀具的综合切削性能。实践表明,作为刀具材料表面改性技 术之一的化学气相沉积(CVD)和物理气相沉积(PVD)工艺技术,在现代切削刀具方面的应用取得了十分理想的效果。尤其是PVD,由于其工艺温度低于 CVD,不会影响刀具基材的性能,且工艺方案的变化灵活,其应用日趋广泛,已成为现代刀具制造的核心技术之一,由此可以说,现代刀具的发展成为了刀具涂层 发展的动力,并为其创造了非凡的发展空间,并几乎将发达国家所有从事涂层设备制造和涂层服务的企业都吸引到国内来,形成了群雄并起的局面。这也就是为什么 近两年来刀具涂层无论在数量上还是在技术水平上都得到快速发展的原因,并确实推动了我国涂层工艺技术和生产的发展。


当 前,单一涂层显然已无法满足现代刀具性能上的要求。高耐磨性、低摩擦系数的多元复合涂层、高韧性和抗冲击性能的多层涂和梯度涂层、具有氧化膜热障顶层和耐 热及抗热冲击的复合涂层、具有耐磨、耐热、低摩擦、高韧性等综合性能的纳米组份(颗粒)的多层涂、用于加工纤维增强复合材料的纯金刚石涂层,以及各类属专 有技术(专利)具有特殊功能的个性化涂层(如人体植入件涂层)等纷纷应运而生。另一方面,刀具涂层亦反作用于现代刀具,使现代刀具的技术水平不断跃上新的 台阶,达到了相互促进,共同发展的效果。

在涂层设备方面,高度的集成化、模块化结构和智能化的运作,不仅实现了设备的现代化;同时使工艺精细、调节自如、高稳定性和高可靠性,因而可做到涂层的精益生产和清洁(绿色)生产,这是确保现代切削刀具成为高技术性能产品的有效手段。
可以预期,我国的刀具涂层在不久的将来会步入一个快速发展期,会出现越来越多的由我国自行涂层加工的高性能涂层刀具,在不断地提高我国的切削加工技术水平,发展我国现代制造业方面,发挥越来越大的作用。

最新的刀具涂层发展

从1970年最先采用的CVD TiN/TiC/ TiCN 到1980年开始的PVD涂层技术,现代涂层技术现在已经广泛应用到刀具、模具、零部件和装饰产品上。采用涂层技术可有效提高切削刀具使用寿命,使刀具获 得优良的综合机械性能,从而大幅度提高机械加工效率。因此,涂层技术与材料、切削加工工艺一起并称为切削刀具制造领域的三大关键技术。相对现在广泛应用的 TiC、TiCN、CrN、TiAlN、TiAlCN,为满足现代机械加工对高效率、高精度、高可靠性的要求,下一代的涂层技术将向高性能涂层技术发展, 其开发的最新一代的高性能涂层专门针对高 档刀具,尤其是硬质合金刀具;现代CNC机床的高精度、高速、大切削量加工刀具;干切削;高效率加工、大批量生产等场合。铣 刀和齿轮滚刀上都有很好的表现。针对钻孔刀而开发的复合涂层(TiN+DLC, TiCN+DLC,AlTiN+DLC)在原有涂层的基础上加DLC涂层(类金刚石涂层),从而得到极为光滑的表面,降低摩擦系数,从根本上解决深孔加工 中的排屑问题而导致的孔径尺寸超差现象的发生。AlTiN能降低加工扭矩50%以上,从而极大地提高刀具的性能,基于TiSi涂层材料,针对硬、难加工材 料的高速切削。



高性能涂层在滚刀上的应用有含Si高性能涂层,专门 针对加工速度大于120m/min,要求高速、高效的批量生产的滚齿加工。涂层针对高速干切削;涂层针对中要求涂层。在一组加工速度为180m/min的 干切削滚齿加工实验中,普通的AlTiN能生产的齿轮数为980个/把刀,而能生产的齿轮数为2000个,刀具寿命提高了1倍。

涂层厂商应该在充分了解客户的产品应用、需求、加工参数、设备状况的基础上,根据客户的实际情况提供客户化的涂层参数设计,从而最大程度地发挥涂层的性能,达到刀具的最佳寿命,增强与客户的沟通和协作,在实际的涂层服务过程中是极为重要的。


减少切削污染

各种机电产品的过早失效破坏中约有70%是由磨损和腐蚀造成的,而这两种失效方式都与材料的表面状态(物理、化学和应力状态等)密切相关。因此,提高这类材料使用性能的关键是提高其表面性能。


随着科技的发展,对材料的表面性能的要求越来越高。 近几十年来各种气相沉积技术的兴起,使表面工程技术的研究和应用都取得了突飞猛进的发展。这些技术不但实现了机械性能的要求,如耐磨、减摩和抗蚀,而且在 电磁、光学、光电子学、热学、超导和生物学等与表层有关的功能材料领域大显身手。表面工程学不仅使低廉的金属材料在性能与效益方面发挥出更大的优势,而且 已成为研制各种新型镀层和薄膜材料的重要手段,具有巨大的应用潜力。

随着机械加工工业水平的提高,对刀具提出了新的要求。除了提高使用寿命外还要求减少切削时的污染,尽可能使用干切削。在不能完全取消切削液的时候,尽量做到其中只含防锈剂而无有机物,这样可以使循环回收的成本大为降低。

切 削工具的多样性和使用时的工作状态特点决定了选择刀具镀层的不同。车削和钻孔不同,铣刀又应考虑其断续冲击的特点。早期发展的涂层以耐磨为主要着眼点,以 提高硬度为主要指标。以氮化钛为代表的此类涂层具有较高的摩擦系数(0.4~0.6),加工时与工件之间不断摩擦将产生大量热能。为避免刀具过热发生变形 影响加工精度和延长其使用寿命,通常使用切削液。


要解决减少或免除切削液带来的问题,刀具镀层不仅应使刀具具有长寿命,且应有自润滑的功能。类金刚石涂层(DLC)的出现在对某些材料 (Al、Ti及其复合材料)的机械加工方面显示出优势,但经过多年的研究表明类金刚石涂层的内应力高、热稳定性差和与黑色金属间的触媒效应使SP3结构向 SP2转变等三种缺点,决定了它目前只能应用于加工有色金属,因而限制了它在机加工方面的进一步应用。但是近年来的研究表明,以SP2结构为主的类金刚石 涂层(也称为类石墨涂层)硬度也可达到20~40GPa,却不存在与黑色金属起触媒效应的问题,其摩擦系数很低又有很好的抗湿性,切削时可以用冷却剂也可 用于干切削,其寿命比非镀层刀有成倍的提高,加工钢铁材料不存在问题,因而引起了涂层公司、刀具厂家极大的兴趣。假以时日,这种新型的类金刚石涂层会在切 削领域得到广泛的应用。

歡迎來到Bewise Inc.的世界,首先恭喜您來到這接受新的資訊讓產業更有競爭力,我們是提供專業刀具製造商,應對客戶高品質的刀具需求,我們可以協助客戶滿足您對產業的不同要求,我們有能力達到非常卓越的客戶需求品質,這是現有相關技術無法比擬的,我們成功的滿足了各行各業的要求,包括:精密HSS DIN切削刀具協助客戶設計刀具流程DIN or JIS 鎢鋼切削刀具設計NAS986 NAS965 NAS897 NAS937orNAS907 航太切削刀具,NAS航太刀具設計超高硬度的切削刀具醫療配件刀具設計汽車業刀具設計電子產業鑽石刀具木工產業鑽石刀具等等。我們的產品涵蓋了從民生刀具到工業級的刀具設計;從微細刀具到大型刀具;從小型生產到大型量產;全自動整合;我們的技術可提供您連續生產的效能,我們整體的服務及卓越的技術,恭迎您親自體驗!!

BW Bewise Inc. Willy Chen willy@tool-tool.com bw@tool-tool.com www.tool-tool.com skype:willy_chen_bw mobile:0937-618-190 Head &Administration Office No.13,Shiang Shang 2nd St., West Chiu Taichung,Taiwan 40356 http://www.tool-tool..com / FAX:+886 4 2471 4839 N.Branch 5F,No.460,Fu Shin North Rd.,Taipei,Taiwan S.Branch No.24,Sec.1,Chia Pu East Rd.,Taipao City,Chiayi Hsien,Taiwan

Welcome to BW tool world! We are an experienced tool maker specialized in cutting tools. We focus on what you need and endeavor to research the best cutter to satisfy users demand. Our customers involve wide range of industries, like mold & die, aerospace, electronic, machinery, etc. We are professional expert in cutting field. We would like to solve every problem from you. Please feel free to contact us, its our pleasure to serve for you. BW product including: cutting toolaerospace tool .HSS DIN Cutting toolCarbide end millsCarbide cutting toolNAS Cutting toolNAS986 NAS965 NAS897 NAS937orNAS907 Cutting Tools,Carbide end milldisc milling cutter,Aerospace cutting toolhss drillФрезерыCarbide drillHigh speed steelMilling cutterCVDD(Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamond )’PCBN (Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride) Core drillTapered end millsCVD Diamond Tools Inserts’PCD Edge-Beveling Cutter(Golden FingerPCD V-CutterPCD Wood toolsPCD Cutting toolsPCD Circular Saw BladePVDD End Millsdiamond tool Single Crystal Diamond Metric end millsMiniature end millsСпециальные режущие инструменты Пустотелое сверло Pilot reamerFraisesFresas con mango PCD (Polycrystalline diamond) ‘FreseElectronics cutterStep drillMetal cutting sawDouble margin drillGun barrelAngle milling cutterCarbide burrsCarbide tipped cutterChamfering toolIC card engraving cutterSide cutterNAS toolDIN or JIS toolSpecial toolMetal slitting sawsShell end millsSide and face milling cuttersSide chip clearance sawsLong end millsStub roughing end millsDovetail milling cuttersCarbide slot drillsCarbide torus cuttersAngel carbide end millsCarbide torus cuttersCarbide ball-nosed slot drillsMould cutterTool manufacturer.

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銑床
用銑刀對工件進行銑削加工的機床。銑床除能銑削平面、溝槽、輪齒、螺紋和花鍵軸外,還能加工比較複雜的型面,效率較刨床高,在機械製造和修理部門得到廣泛應用。

簡史
最 早的銑床是美國人E.惠特尼於1818年創製的臥式銑床。為了銑削麻花鑽頭的螺旋槽,美國人布朗,J.R.於1862年創製了第一台萬能銑床,是為升降台 銑床的雛形。1884年前後出現了龍門銑床。20世紀20年代出現了半自動銑床,工作台利用擋塊可完成“進給-快速”或“快速-進給”的自動轉換。 1950年以後,銑床在控制系統方面發展很快,數字控制的應用大大提升了銑床的自動化程度。尤其是70年代以後,微處理機的數字控制系統和自動換刀系統在 銑床上得到應用,擴大了銑床的加工範圍,提升了加工精度與效率。

類型
銑床種類很多,一般按佈局形式和適用範圍加以區分。 升降台銑床︰有萬能式、臥式和立式等,主要用於加工中小型零件,應用最廣。 龍門銑床︰包括龍門銑鏜床 龍門銑刨床和雙柱銑床,均用於加工大型零件。 單柱銑床和單臂銑床︰前者的水準銑頭可沿立柱導軌移動,工作台作縱向進給;後者的立銑頭可沿懸臂導軌水準移動,懸臂也可沿立柱導軌調整高度。兩者均用於加 工大型零件。 工作台不升降銑床︰有 形工作台式和圓工作台式兩種,是介於升降台銑床和龍門銑床之間的一種中等規格的銑床。其垂直方向的運動由銑頭在立柱上升降來完成。 儀表銑床︰一種小型的升降台銑床,用於加工儀器儀表和其他小型零件。 工具銑床︰用於模具和工具製造,配有立銑頭、萬能角度工作台和插頭等多種附件,還可進行鑽削、鏜削和插削等加工。 其他銑床︰如鍵槽銑床、凸輪銑床、曲軸銑床、軋輥軸頸銑床和方鋼錠銑床等,是為加工相應的工件而製造的專用銑床。按控制模式,銑床又分為仿形銑床、程式控 制銑床和數字控制銑床。

銑削
用旋轉的銑刀作為刀具的切削加工。銑削一般在銑床或鏜床上進行,適於加工平面、溝槽、各種成形面(如花鍵、齒輪和螺紋)和模具的特殊形面等。銑削的特徵是︰ 銑刀各刀齒週期性地參與間斷切削; 每個刀齒在切削過程中的切削濃度是變化的。

切 削速度v(米/分)是銑刀刃的圓周速度。銑削進給量有3種表示模式︰ 每分鐘進給量vf(毫米/分),表示工件每分鐘相對於銑刀的位移量; 每轉進給量f(毫米/轉),表示在銑刀每轉一轉時與工件的相對位移量; 每齒進給量af(毫米/齒),表示銑刀每轉過一個刀齒的時間內工件的相對位移量。銑削深度ap(毫米)是在平行於銑刀軸心線方向測量的銑刀與工件的接觸長 度。銑削切削弧深度ae(毫米)是垂直於銑刀軸心線方向測量的銑刀與工件接觸弧的深度。用高速鋼銑刀銑削中碳鋼的切削速度一般為20~30米/分;用硬質 合金銑刀可達60~90米/分。

銑削一般分周銑和端銑兩種模式。周銑是用刀體圓周上的刀齒銑削,其周邊刃起切削作用,銑刀的軸線平行於工件的加工表面。

周 銑和某些不對稱的端銑又有逆銑和順銑之分。凡刀刃切削方向與工件的進給運動方向相反的稱為逆銑;方向相同的稱為順銑。逆銑時,銑刀每齒的切削濃度是從零逐 漸增大,所以刀齒在開始切入時,將與切削表面發生擠壓和滑擦,這對銑刀壽命和銑削工件的表面質量都有不利影響。順銑時的情況正相反,所以順銑能提升銑刀壽 命和銑削表面質量,並能減小機床的功率消耗。但順銑時銑刀所受的切削衝擊力較大,當機床的進給傳動機構有間隙或鑄鍛毛坯有硬皮時不宜採用順銑,以免引起振 動和損壞刀具。

銑刀是一種多齒刀具,同時參與切削的切削刃總長度較長,並可使用較高的切削速度,又無空行程,故在一般情況下銑削的生產率比用單刃刀具的切削加工(如刨削、插削)為高,但銑刀的製造和刃磨較為困難。

普通銑削的加工精度不高,一般粗銑精度為IT11~10,表面粗糙度為Ra20~2.5微米;精銑精度可達IT9~7,表面粗糙度為Ra2.5~0.16微米。

歡迎來到Bewise Inc.的世界,首先恭喜您來到這接受新的資訊讓產業更有競爭力,我們是提供專業刀具製造商,應對客戶高品質的刀具需求,我們可以協助客戶滿足您對產業的不同要求,我們有能力達到非常卓越的客戶需求品質,這是現有相關技術無法比擬的,我們成功的滿足了各行各業的要求,包括:精密HSS DIN切削刀具協助客戶設計刀具流程DIN or JIS 鎢鋼切削刀具設計NAS986 NAS965 NAS897 NAS937orNAS907 航太切削刀具,NAS航太刀具設計超高硬度的切削刀具醫療配件刀具設計汽車業刀具設計電子產業鑽石刀具木工產業鑽石刀具等等。我們的產品涵蓋了從民生刀具到工業級的刀具設計;從微細刀具到大型刀具;從小型生產到大型量產;全自動整合;我們的技術可提供您連續生產的效能,我們整體的服務及卓越的技術,恭迎您親自體驗!!

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不 锈钢是石油、化工、化肥、食品、国防、餐具、合成纤维和石油提炼等工业行业中广泛使用的金属材,而许多容器、管道、阀门、泵、等一般都因与各种腐 蚀性介质接触遭受腐蚀而报废。据统计,全世界每年因腐蚀而报废的钢材约占钢材年产量的1/4。而不锈钢的产量占钢铁总产量的1%。因此,材料受到腐蚀而失 效是当今材料研究与发展中的三大主要问题之一。


  不锈钢是指具有抗腐蚀性能的一类钢种。

  通常所说的不锈钢是不锈钢与耐酸钢的总称。

  不锈钢不一定耐酸,但耐酸钢同时又是不锈钢。


   所谓不锈钢是指能抵抗大气及弱腐蚀介质腐蚀的钢种。腐蚀速度<0.01 mm/年者为完全耐腐蚀钢,速度<0.1 mm/年者为耐蚀钢。所谓的耐酸钢是指在各种强腐蚀介质中能耐酸的钢.腐蚀速度<0.1mm/年者为完全耐蚀,腐蚀速度<1mm/年者为耐蚀。因此.不锈 钢并不是不腐蚀、只不过腐蚀速度较慢而已、绝对不被腐蚀的钢是不存在的。


   值得注意的是在同一介质中.不同种类的不锈钢腐蚀速度大不相同而同一种不锈钢在不同的 介质中腐蚀行为也大不一样。例如.Ni-Cr不锈钢在氧化性介质中的耐蚀性很好.但在非氧化介质中(如盐酸)的耐蚀性就不好了。因此掌握各类不锈钢的特 点、对于正确选择和使用不锈钢是很重要的。


  不锈钢不仅要耐蚀,还要承受或传递载荷,因此还需要具有较好的力学性能。不锈钢一般以板、管等型材加工成构件或零件,因此.要有良好的切削加工性能和良好的焊接性能。


  不锈钢按典型组织分为:铁素体(F)型不锈钢;马氏体〔M)型不锈钢;奥氏体(A)型不锈钢;奥氏体-铁素体(A-F)双相型不锈钢;沉淀硬化型不锈钢。


一、金属腐蚀

(一)金属的腐蚀过程


   在外界介质的作用下使金属逐渐受到破坏的现象称为腐蚀。腐蚀基本上有两种形式.化学腐 蚀和电化学腐蚀。在生产实际中遇到的腐蚀主要是电化学腐蚀,化学腐蚀中不产生电流,巨在腐蚀过程中形成某种腐蚀产物。这种腐蚀产物一般都覆盖在金属表面上 形成一层膜,使金属与介质隔离开来。


  如果这层化学生成物是稳定、致 密、完整并同金属表层牢固结合的,则将大大减轻甚至可以 防止腐蚀的进一步发展,对金属起保护作用。形成保护膜的过程称为钝化。例如,生成SiO2、Al2O3、Cr2O3等氧化膜,这些氧化膜结构致密、完整、 无疏松、无裂纹且不易剥落,可起到保护基体金属、避免继续氧化的作用。例如铁在高温氧化时生成的Fe2O3。反之,有些氧化膜是不连续的,或者是多孔状 的.对基体金属没有保护作用。例如.有些金属的氧化物,如Mo2O3、WO3在高温下具有挥发性,完全没有覆盖基体的保护作用。


   可见,氧化膜的产生及氧化膜的结构和性质是化学腐蚀的重要特征。因此,提高金属耐化学 腐蚀的能力 ,主要是通过合金化或其它方法,在金属表面形成一层稳定的、完整致密的并与基体结合牢固的氧化膜,也称为钝化膜,电化学腐蚀是金属腐蚀更重要的、更普遍的 形式,它是由不同的金属或金属的不同电极电位而构成原电池所产生的。这种原电池腐蚀是在显微组织之间产生的故又称之为微电池腐蚀。电化学腐蚀的特点是有电 介质存在,不同金属之间、金属微区之间或相之间有电位差异连通或接触,同时有腐蚀电流产生。



二、腐蚀类型

  金属材料在工业生产中的腐蚀失效形式是多种多样的。不同材料在不同负荷及不同介质环境的作用下,其腐蚀形式主要有以下几类:

一般腐蚀:金属裸露表面发生大面积的较为均匀的腐蚀,虽降低构件受力有效面积及其使用寿命,但比局部腐蚀的危害性小。

   晶间腐蚀:指沿品界进行的腐蚀,使晶粒的连接遭到破坏。这种腐蚀的危害性最大,它可以使金属变脆或丧失强度,敲击时失去金属声响,易造成突然事故。晶 间腐蚀为奥氏体不锈钢的主要腐蚀形式,这是由于晶界区域与晶内成分或应力有差别,引起晶界区域电极电位显著降低而造成的电极电位助差别所致。

  应力腐蚀:金属在腐蚀介质及拉应力(外加应力或内应力)的共同作用下产生破裂现象。断裂方式主要是沿晶的、也有 穿晶的,这是一种危险的低应力脆性断裂、在氯化介质和碱性氧化物或其它水溶性介质中常发生应力腐蚀,在许多设备的事故中占相当大的比例。

  点腐蚀:点腐蚀是发生在金属表面局部区域的一种腐蚀破坏形式、点腐蚀形成后能迅速地向深处发展,最后穿透金属。点腐蚀危害性很大,尤其是对各种容器是极为不利的。出现点腐蚀后应及时磨光或涂漆,以避免腐蚀加深。

  点腐蚀产生的原因是在介质的作用下,金属表面钝化膜受到局部损坏而造成的。或者在含有氯离子的介质中,材料表面缺陷疏松及非金属夹杂物等都可引起点腐蚀。

  腐蚀疲劳:金属在腐蚀介质及交变应力作用下发生的破坏、其特点是产生腐蚀坑和大量裂纹。显著降低钢的疲劳强度,导致过早断裂。腐蚀疲劳不同于机械疲劳,它没有一定的疲劳极限,随着循环次数的增加,疲劳强度一直是下降的。

  除了上述各种腐蚀形式以外,还有由于宏观电池作用而产生的腐蚀。例如,金属构件中铆钉与铆接材料不同、异种金属的焊接、船体与螺旋桨材料不同等因电极电位差别而造成的腐蚀。

  从上述腐蚀机理可见,防止腐蚀的着眼点应放在:尽可能减少原电池数量,使钢的表面形成一层稳定的、完整的、与钢的基体结合牢固的钝化膜;在形成原电池的情况下,尽可能减少两极间的电极电位差。


不锈钢的合金化原理

提高钢耐蚀性的方法很多,如表面涂一层耐蚀金属、涂敷非金属层、电化学保护和改变腐蚀环境介质等。但是利用合金化方法,提高材料本身的耐蚀性是最有效的防止腐蚀破坏的措施之一,其方法如下:

(1)加入合金元素,提高钢基体的电极电位,从而提高钢的抗电化学腐蚀能力。一般钢中加入Cr、Ni、Si多元素均能提高其电极电位。由于Ni较缺,Si的大量加入会使钢变脆,因此,只有Cr才是显著提高钢基体电极电位常用的元素。

Cr 能提高钢的电极电位,但不是呈线性关系、如图5.1所示。实验证明钢的电极电位随合金元素的增加,存在着一个量变到质变的关系,遵循1/8规律。当Cr含 量达到一定值时即1/8原子(l/8、2/8、3/8……)时 ,电极电位将有一个突变。因此,几乎所有的不锈钢中,Cr含量均在12.%(原子)以上,即11.7%(质量)以上。

(2)加入合金元素使钢的表面形成一层稳定的、完整的与钢的基体结合牢固的纯化膜。从而提高钢的耐化学腐蚀能力。如在钢中加入 Cr,Si.Al等合金元素 ,使钢的表层形成致密的Cr2O3,SiO2,Al2O3等氧化膜,就可提高钢的耐蚀性。

(3)加入合金元素使钢在常温时能以单相状态存在,减少微电池数目从而提高钢的耐蚀性。如加入足够数量的Cr或Cr-Ni,使钢在室温下获得单相铁素体或单相奥氏体。

(4)加入Mo、Cu等元素,提高抗腐蚀的能力。

(5)加入Ti,Nb等元素,消除Cr的晶间偏析,从而减轻了晶间腐蚀倾向。

(6)加入Mn、N等元素,代替部分Ni获得单相奥氏体组织,同时能大大提高铬不锈钢在有机酸中的耐蚀性。


不锈钢的种类和特点

不锈钢有两种分类法:一种是按合金元素的特点,划分为铬不锈钢和铬镍不锈钢;

另一种是按在正火状态下钢的组织状态,划分为M不锈钢、F不锈钢、A不锈钢、A一F双相不锈钢。


一、马氏体不锈钢

  典型的马氏体不锈钢有1Cr13~4Cr13和9Cr18等

   1Cr13钢加工工艺性能良好。可不经预热进行深冲、弯曲、卷边及焊接。2Crl3冷变形前不要求预热,但焊接前需预热,1Crl3、2Cr13主要 用来制作耐蚀结构件如汽轮机叶片等,而3Cr13、4Cr13主要用来制作医疗器械外科手术刀及耐磨零件;9Crl8可做耐蚀轴承及刀具。


二、铁素体不锈钢

   铁素不锈钢的含Cr量一般为13%~30%合碳量低于0.25%。有时还加入其它合金元素。金相组织主要是铁素体,加热及冷却过程中没有α<= >γ转变,不能用热处理进行强化。抗氧化性强。同时,它还具有良好的热加工性及一定的冷加工性。铁素体不锈钢主要用来制作要求有较高的耐蚀性而强度 要求较低的构件,广泛用于制造生产硝酸、氮肥等设备和化工使用的管道等。

典型的铁素体不锈钢有Crl7型、Cr25型和Cr28型。


三,奥氏体不锈钢

  奥氏体不锈钢是克服马氏作不锈钢耐蚀性不足和脆性过大而发展起来的。基本成分为Crl8%、Ni8%简称18-8钢。其特点是合碳量低于0.1%,利用Cr、Ni配合获得单相奥氏体组织。

奥氏作不锈钢一般用于制造生产硝酸、硫酸等化工设备构件、冷冻工业低温设备构件及经形变强化后可用作不锈钢弹簧和钟表发条等。

奥氏体不锈钢具有良好的抗均匀腐蚀的性能,但在局部抗腐蚀方面,仍存在下列问题:

1.奥氏体不锈钢的晶间腐蚀

   奥氏作不锈钢在450~850℃保温或缓慢冷却时,会出现晶问腐蚀。含碳量越高,晶间蚀倾向性越大。此外,在焊接件的热影响区也会出现晶间腐蚀。这是 由于在晶界上析出富Cr的Cr23C6。使其周围基体产生贫铬区,从而形成腐蚀原电池而造成的。这种晶间腐蚀现象在前面提到的铁素体不锈钢中也是存在的。


工程上常采用以下几种方法防止晶间腐蚀:

(1)降低钢中的碳量,使钢中合碳量低于平衡状态下在奥氏体内的饱和溶解度,即从根本上解决了铬的碳化物(Cr23C6)在晶界上析出的问题。通常钢中合碳量降至0.03%以下即可满足抗晶间腐蚀性能的要求。

(2)加入Ti、Nb等能形成稳定碳化物(TiC或NbC)的元素,避免在晶界上析出Cr23C6,即可防上奥氏体不锈钢的晶间腐蚀。

(3)通过调整钢中奥氏体形成元素与铁素体形成元素的比例,使其具有奥氏体+铁索体双相组织,其中铁素体占5%一12%。这种双相组织不易产生晶间腐蚀。

(4)采用适当热处理工艺,可以防止晶间腐蚀,获得最佳的耐蚀性。


2.奥氏体不锈钢的应力腐蚀

   应力(主要是拉应力)与腐蚀的综合作用所引起的开裂称为应力腐蚀开裂,简称SCC(Stress Crack Corrosion)。奥氏体不锈钢容易在含氯离子的腐蚀介质中产生应力腐蚀。当含Ni量达到8%一10%时,奥氏体不锈钢应力腐蚀倾向性最大,继续增加 含Ni量至45~50%应力腐蚀倾向逐渐减小,直至消失。

  防止奥氏体不锈钢应力腐蚀的最主要途径是加入Si2~4%并从冶炼上将N含 量控制在0.04%以下。此外还应尽量减少P、Sb、Bi、As等杂质的含 量。另外可选用A-F双相钢,它在Cl-和OH-介质中对应力腐蚀不敏感。当初始的微细裂纹遇到铁素体相后不再继续扩展,铁素体含量应在6%左右。


3.奥氏作不锈钢的形变强化

  单相的奥氏体不锈钢具有良好的冷变形性能,可以冷拔成很细的钢丝,冷轧成很薄的钢带或钢管。经过大量变形后,钢的强度大力提高 ,尤其是在零下温区轧制时,效果更为显著。抗拉强度可达 2000 MPa以上。这是因为除了冷作硬化效果外,还叠加了形变诱发M转变。

  奥氏作不锈钢经形变强化后可用来制造不锈弹簧、钟表发条、航空结构中的钢丝绳等。形变后若需焊接,则只能采用点焊工艺、形变使应力腐蚀倾向性增加。并因部分γ->M转变而产生铁磁性,在使用时(如仪表零件中)应予以考虑。

  再结晶温度随形变量而改变,当形变量为60%时,其再结晶温度降为650℃冷变形奥氏体不锈钢再结晶退火温度为850~1050℃,850℃则需保温3h,1050℃时透烧即可,然后水冷。


4.奥氏作不锈钢的热处理

奥氏体不锈钢常用的热处理工艺有:固溶处理、稳定化处理和去应力处理等。

(1) 固溶处理。将钢加热到1050~1150℃后水淬,主要目的是使碳化物溶于奥氏体中,并将此状态保留到室温,这样钢的耐蚀性会有很大改善。如上所 述,为了防止晶问腐蚀,通常采用固溶化处理,使Cr23C6溶于奥氏体中,然后快速冷却。对于薄壁件可采用空冷,一般情况采用水冷。

(2)稳定化处理。一般是在固溶处理后进行,常用于含Ti、Nb的18-8钢,固处理后,将钢加热到850~880℃保温后空冷 ,此时Cr的碳化物完全溶解,脱而钛的碳化物不完全溶解,且在冷却过程中充分析出,使碳不可能再形成铬的碳化物,因而有效地消除了晶间腐蚀。

(3) 去应力处理。去应力处理是消除钢在冷加工或焊接后的残余应力的热处理工艺一般加热到300~350℃回火。对于不含稳定化元素Ti、Nb的钢,加热 温度不超过450℃,以免析出铬的碳化物而引起晶间腐蚀。对于超低碳和含Ti、Nb不锈钢的冷加工件和焊接件,需在500~950℃,加热,然后缓冷,消 除应力(消除焊接应力取上限温度),可以减轻晶间腐蚀倾向并提高钢的应力腐蚀抗力。


四、奥氏体-铁素体双相不锈钢

   在奥氏不锈钢的基础上,适当增加Cr含量并减少Ni含量,并与回溶化处理相配合,可获得具有奥氏体和铁素体的双相组织( 含40~60%δ-铁素体)的不锈钢,典型钢号有0Cr21Ni5Ti、1Cr21Ni5Ti、OCr21Ni6Mo2Ti等。双相不锈钢有较好的焊接 性,焊后不需热处理,而且其晶间腐蚀、应力腐蚀倾向性也较小。但由于含Cr量高,易形成σ相,使用时应加以注意。

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特 性

   不锈钢的发展是因为有其自身的特性,而特性满足了需要。不锈钢的最重要的特性是耐蚀性能,但是又绝不是仅仅具有耐蚀性能,而且还具有特有的力学性能 (屈服强度、抗拉强度、蠕变强度、高温强度、低温强度等)、物理性能(密度、比热容、线膨胀系数、、导热系数、电阻率、磁导率、弹性系数等)、工艺性能 (成形性能、焊接性能、切削性能等)以及金相(相组成、组织结构等)等。这些性能构成了不锈钢的特性,下面仅就其中一些最基本的特性进行简要的介绍。

  一、力学性能

 (一)强度(抗拉强度、屈服强度)

  不锈钢的强度是由各种因素不确定,但最重要的和最基本的因素是其中添加的不同化学因素,主要是金属元素。不同类型的不锈钢由于其化学成分的差异,就有不同的强度特性。

  (1)马氏体型不锈钢

  马氏体型不锈钢与普通合金钢一样具有通过淬火实现硬化的特性,因此可通过选择牌号及热处理条件来得到较大范围的不同的力学性能。

  马氏体型不锈钢从大的方面来区分,属于铁-铬-碳系不锈钢。进而可分为马氏体铬系不锈钢和马氏体铬镍系不锈钢。在马氏体铬系不锈钢中添加铬、碳和钼等元素时强度的变化趋势和在马氏体铬系不锈钢中添加镍的强度特性如下所述。

   马氏体铬系不锈钢在淬火-回火条件下,增加铬的含量可使铁素体含量增加,因而会降低硬度和抗拉强度。低碳马氏体铬不锈钢在退火条件下,当铬含量增加时 硬度有所提高,而延伸率略有下降。在铬含量一定的条件下,碳含量的增加使钢在淬火后的硬度也随之增加,而塑性降低。添加钼的主要目的是提高钢的强度、硬度 及二次硬化效果。在进行低温淬火后,钼的添加效果十分明显。含量通常少于1%。

  在马氏体铬镍系不锈钢中,含一定量的镍可降低钢中的δ铁素体含量,使钢得到最大硬度值。

  马氏体型不锈钢的化学成分特征是,在0.1%-1.0%C,12%-27%Cr的不同成分组合基础上添加钼、钨、钒、和铌等元素。由于组织结构为体心立方结构,因而在高温下强度急剧下降。而在600℃以下,高温强度在各类不锈钢中最高,蠕变强度也最高。

 (2)铁素体型不锈钢

   据研究结果,当铬含量小于25%时铁素体组织会抑制马氏体组织的形成,因而随铬含量的增加其强度下降;高于25%时由于合金的固溶强化作用,强度略有 提高。钼含量的增加可使其更易获得铁素体组织,可促进α ’相、б相和x相的析出,并经固溶强化后其强度提高。但同时也提高了缺口敏感性,从而使韧性降低。钼提高铁素体型不锈钢强度的作用大于铬的作用。

  铁素体型不锈钢的化学成分的特征是含11%-30%Cr,其中添加铌和钛。其高温强度在各类不锈钢中是最低的,但对热疲劳的抗力最强。

 (3)奥氏体型不锈钢

  奥氏体型不锈钢中增加碳的含量后,由于其固溶强化作用使强度得到提高。

  奥氏体型不锈钢的化学成分特性是以铬、镍为基础添加钼、钨、铌和钛等元素。由于其组织为面心立方结构,因而在高温下有高的强度和蠕变强度。还由于线膨胀系数大,因此比铁素体型不锈钢热疲劳强度差。

 (4)双相不锈钢

  对铬含量约为25%的双相不锈钢的力学性能研究表明,在α+r双相区内镍含量增加时r相也增加。当钢中的铬含量为5%时,钢的屈服强度达到最高值;当镍含量为10%时,钢的强度达到最大值。

 (二)蠕变强度

   由于外力的作用随时间的增加而发生变形的现象称之为蠕变。在一定温度下特别是在高温下、载荷越大则发生蠕变的速度越快;在一定载荷下,温度越高和时间 越长则发生蠕变的可能性越大。与此相反,温度越低蠕变速度越慢,在低至一定温度时蠕变就不成问题了。这个最低温度依钢种而异,一般来说纯铁在330℃左 右,而不锈钢则因己采取各种措施进行了强化,所以该温度是550℃以上。

  和其他钢一样,熔炼方式、脱氧方法、凝固方法、热处理和加工 等对不锈钢的蠕变特性有很大的影响。据介绍,在美国进行的对18-8不锈钢进行蠕变强度试 验表明,取自同一钢锭同一部位的试料的蠕变断裂时间的标准今偏差是平均值的约11%,而取自不同钢锭的上、中、下不同部位的试料的标准偏差与平均值相差则 达到两倍之多。又据在德国进行的试验结果表明,在10的5次幂h时间下0Cr18Ni11Nb钢的强度为小于49MPa至118MPa,散差很大。

 (三)疲劳强度

  高温疲劳是指材料在高温下由于周期反复变化着的应力的作用而发生损伤至断裂的过程。对其进行的研究结果表明,在某一高温下,10的8次幂次高温疲劳强度是该温度下高温抗拉强度的1/2。

   热疲劳是指在进行加热(膨胀)和冷却(收缩)的过程中,当温度发生变化和受到来自外部的约束力时,在材料的内部相应于其本身的膨胀和收缩变形产生应 力,并使材料发生损伤。当快速地反复加热和冷却时其应力就具冲击性,所产生的应力与通常情况相比更大,此时有的材料呈脆性破坏。这种现象被称之为絷冲击。 热疲劳和热冲击是有着相似之处的现象,但前者主要伴随大的塑性应变,而后者的破坏主要是脆性破坏。

  不锈钢的成分和热处理条件对高温疲劳强度有影响。特别是当碳的含量增加时高温疲劳强度明显提高,固溶热处理温度也有显著的影响。一般来说铁素体型不锈钢具有良好的热疲劳性能。在奥氏体不锈钢中,高硅的且在高温下具有良好的延伸性的牌号有着良好的热疲劳性能。

   热膨胀系数越小、在同一热周期作用下应变量越小、变形抗力越小和断裂强度越高,寿命就越长。可以说马氏体型不锈钢1Cr17的疲劳寿命最长,而 0Cr19Ni9、0Cr23Ni13和2Cr25Ni20等奥氏体型不锈钢的疲劳寿命最短。另外铸件较锻件更易发生由于热疲劳引起的破坏。在室温下, 10的7次幂次疲劳强度是抗拉强度的1/2。与高温下的疲劳强度相比可知,从室温到高温的温度范围内疲劳强度没有太大的差异。

 (四)冲击韧性

   材料在冲击载荷作用下,载荷变形曲线所包括的面积称为冲击韧性。对于铸造马氏体时效不锈钢,当镍含量为5%时其冲击韧性较低。随着镍含量的增加,钢的 强度和韧性可得到改善,但镍含量大于8%时,强度和韧性值又一次下降。在马氏体铬镍系不锈钢中添加钼后,可提高钢的强度且可保持韧性不变。

  在铁素体型不锈钢中增加钼的含量虽可提高强度,但缺口敏感性也被提高而使韧性下降。

  在奥氏体型不锈钢中具有稳定奥氏体组织和铬镍系奥氏体不锈钢的韧性(室温下韧性和低温下韧性)非常优良,因而适用于在室温下和低温下的各种环境中使用。对于有稳定奥氏体组织和铬锰系奥氏体不锈钢。添加镍可进一步改善其韧性。

  双相不锈钢的冲击韧性随镍含量的增加而提高。一般来说,在a+r两相区内其冲击韧性稳定在160-200J的范围内。

歡迎來到Bewise Inc.的世界,首先恭喜您來到這接受新的資訊讓產業更有競爭力,我們是提供專業刀具製造商,應對客戶高品質的刀具需求,我們可以協助客戶滿足您對產業的不同要求,我們有能力達到非常卓越的客戶需求品質,這是現有相關技術無法比擬的,我們成功的滿足了各行各業的要求,包括:精密HSS DIN切削刀具協助客戶設計刀具流程DIN or JIS 鎢鋼切削刀具設計NAS986 NAS965 NAS897 NAS937orNAS907 航太切削刀具,NAS航太刀具設計超高硬度的切削刀具醫療配件刀具設計汽車業刀具設計電子產業鑽石刀具木工產業鑽石刀具等等。我們的產品涵蓋了從民生刀具到工業級的刀具設計;從微細刀具到大型刀具;從小型生產到大型量產;全自動整合;我們的技術可提供您連續生產的效能,我們整體的服務及卓越的技術,恭迎您親自體驗!!

BW Bewise Inc. Willy Chen willy@tool-tool.com bw@tool-tool.com www.tool-tool.com skype:willy_chen_bw mobile:0937-618-190 Head &Administration Office No.13,Shiang Shang 2nd St., West Chiu Taichung,Taiwan 40356 http://www.tool-tool..com / FAX:+886 4 2471 4839 N.Branch 5F,No.460,Fu Shin North Rd.,Taipei,Taiwan S.Branch No.24,Sec.1,Chia Pu East Rd.,Taipao City,Chiayi Hsien,Taiwan

Welcome to BW tool world! We are an experienced tool maker specialized in cutting tools. We focus on what you need and endeavor to research the best cutter to satisfy users demand. Our customers involve wide range of industries, like mold & die, aerospace, electronic, machinery, etc. We are professional expert in cutting field. We would like to solve every problem from you. Please feel free to contact us, its our pleasure to serve for you. BW product including: cutting toolaerospace tool .HSS DIN Cutting toolCarbide end millsCarbide cutting toolNAS Cutting toolNAS986 NAS965 NAS897 NAS937orNAS907 Cutting Tools,Carbide end milldisc milling cutter,Aerospace cutting toolhss drillФрезерыCarbide drillHigh speed steelMilling cutterCVDD(Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamond )’PCBN (Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride) Core drillTapered end millsCVD Diamond Tools Inserts’PCD Edge-Beveling Cutter(Golden FingerPCD V-CutterPCD Wood toolsPCD Cutting toolsPCD Circular Saw BladePVDD End Millsdiamond tool Single Crystal Diamond Metric end millsMiniature end millsСпециальные режущие инструменты Пустотелое сверло Pilot reamerFraisesFresas con mango PCD (Polycrystalline diamond) ‘FreseElectronics cutterStep drillMetal cutting sawDouble margin drillGun barrelAngle milling cutterCarbide burrsCarbide tipped cutterChamfering toolIC card engraving cutterSide cutterNAS toolDIN or JIS toolSpecial toolMetal slitting sawsShell end millsSide and face milling cuttersSide chip clearance sawsLong end millsStub roughing end millsDovetail milling cuttersCarbide slot drillsCarbide torus cuttersAngel carbide end millsCarbide torus cuttersCarbide ball-nosed slot drillsMould cutterTool manufacturer.

Bewise Inc. www.tool-tool.com

ようこそBewise Inc.の世界へお越し下さいませ、先ず御目出度たいのは新たな

情報を受け取って頂き、もっと各産業に競争力プラス展開。

弊社は専門なエンドミルの製造メーカーで、客先に色んな分野のニーズ

豊富なパリエーションを満足させ、特にハイテク品質要求にサポート致します。

弊社は各領域に供給できる内容は:

(1)精密HSSエンドミルのR&D

(2)Carbide Cutting tools設計

(3)鎢鋼エンドミル設計

(4)航空エンドミル設計

(5)超高硬度エンドミル

(6)ダイヤモンドエンドミル

(7)医療用品エンドミル設計

(8)自動車部品&材料加工向けエンドミル設計

弊社の製品の供給調達機能は:

(1)生活産業~ハイテク工業までのエンドミル設計

(2)ミクロエンドミル~大型エンドミル供給

(3)小Lot生産~大量発注対応供給

(4)オートメーション整備調達

(5)スポット対応~流れ生産対応

弊社の全般供給体制及び技術自慢の総合専門製造メーカーに貴方のご体験を御待ちしております。

BW специализируется в научных исследованиях и разработках, и снабжаем самым высокотехнологичным карбидовым материалом для поставки режущих / фрезеровочных инструментов для почвы, воздушного пространства и электронной индустрии. В нашу основную продукцию входит твердый карбид / быстрорежущая сталь, а также двигатели, микроэлектрические дрели, IC картонорезальные машины, фрезы для гравирования, режущие пилы, фрезеры-расширители, фрезеры-расширители с резцом, дрели, резаки форм для шлицевого вала / звездочки роликовой цепи, и специальные нано инструменты. Пожалуйста, посетите сайт www.tool-tool.com для получения большей информации.

BW is specialized in R&D and sourcing the most advanced carbide material with high-tech coating to supply cutting / milling tool for mould & die, aero space and electronic industry. Our main products include solid carbide / HSS end mills, micro electronic drill, IC card cutter, engraving cutter, shell end mills, cutting saw, reamer, thread reamer, leading drill, involute gear cutter for spur wheel, rack and worm milling cutter, thread milling cutter, form cutters for spline shaft/roller chain sprocket, and special tool, with nano grade. Please visit our web www.tool-tool.com for more info.

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昨天下了班跑去看了這部期待了一個月的funny movie-特務行不行,
英文電影原名為「Get Smart」
主角為演出「四十處男」以及「王牌天神續集」的史提夫卡爾
以及最近大紅大紫大紫演出「穿著proda的惡魔」和「斷背山」的安海瑟薇
(剛好Cash我這四部都有看過@@)
這張海報拍得有夠奇怪…
作為主要的宣傳海報卻又把女主角安海瑟薇的臉擋住一大塊..一一....
而且這樣的海報可是有二張的哦!真不知道攝影宣傳在想什麼...

首先是演員的介紹

史提夫卡爾實在是名符其實的冷面笑匠:)
整部電影帶給人很穩的感覺,

而安海瑟薇一出場的感覺是,
挖...真是有辣到~真正呀~
只不過除了一開始的出場以外,
她都被導演化妝化得濃到不行=__=q

另外巨石強森也演出本片,
佔了個不小的角色,
他演出的浴血叢林和超級盃奶爸實在是超好看的呀!
在本片中一樣的健美先生形像,
把釘書針釘在別人臉上的畫面實在是…(噗>v<)

上圖右邊那位演員,
相信許多人都不知道是誰,
但Cash我倒是很熟悉,
他是在知名美劇Heros超能英雄(天驕)
(是我認為近幾年最好看的美劇~第三季開拍囉!等半年了)
唯一亞裔演員的岡政偉(又叫丘增 Masi Oka)
飾演片中的中村寬(Hiro),
是我很喜歡的角色,因此記憶深刻,
在本片特務行不行中演出甘草人物,
表現倒是普普,戲份略少,
沒發揮出他的演出實力蠻可惜的。



內容劇情方面

頗帶笑料的內容,
給予觀眾和cash我許多的歡樂,
不過大概是因為好笑的地方太好笑了,
有的地方給人感覺就蠻冷場的…
導演似乎不是很注重整部電影連貫的氣氛,
(個人覺得最可惜的是片尾雖然有做笑料,
但還沒有到達讓人笑著走出戲院的feel…)
但不失為一部極具笑料的影片,
導演十之八九一定很討厭布希,
在片中城市要被炸掉前片中的總統,
還在好像國小的地方和學生聊天,
(美國911時布希還躲在學校裝沒事...)
那部份的戲碼整個就很諷刺,

如果去看電影院時,
你如果沒聽到全場大笑的聲音,
表示各位生活壓力太大也太會忍笑了吧一一"
我可是笑到噴淚耶....
最喜歡的片段大概是主角飛過一輛車子時,
裡面的小孩子喊Mon!Mon!Mon!
然後他媽媽回答Shoun!Shoun!Shoun!的地方吧~哈哈~
預告裡面都有演到,

總而言之,
這部片是Cash推薦欣賞的片子啦!
和家人或好友同看都是很棒的選擇,
(還好有花旗卡讓我花144就能在華納看電影...嘻.....)

歡迎進入Beeway的憶想世界以記憶體為基調 結合創新科技、設計美學、健康概念、工業藝術、與時尚流行等元素, 賦予隨身碟更豐富多元的面貌.

Beeway專門設計製造USB隨身碟飾品,最新產品為高品質的鈦鍺USB隨身碟項鍊組

Mail:nochingyo@beeway.com.tw 網址www.beeway.com.tw

TEL:886 4 24759277 FAX:886 4 24714839

We manufacture and design USB Flash Drive Disk / Memory Stick with accessory by combining advanced tech, stylish esthetics, health concept, craft, and fashion. Creativity is our best power.

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你 有大熱天大汗淋漓還穿著正式服裝的經驗嗎?
在苦等你幾個月後現在終於不用再忍受這樣的痛苦了。
從去年開始就推出了很多基於USB的時尚易用的小產品。

等不及想 試試了嗎?
Thanko設計的第二代USB領帶,
把它翻過來我們能看到在裡面隱藏了一個強有力的風扇,
就是它能讓你保持一整天的涼爽。
今年 的樣式是用纖維代替了原來的塑料,
真正成為了今夏不可或缺的東西。
Thanko的產品在日本售價2980日元(約865元)...實在是不便宜呀....
[引用來源]
[引用來源]
[引用來源]

歡迎進入Beeway的憶想世界以記憶體為基調 結合創新科技、設計美學、健康概念、工業藝術、與時尚流行等元素, 賦予隨身碟更豐富多元的面貌.

Beeway專門設計製造USB隨身碟飾品,最新產品為高品質的鈦鍺USB隨身碟項鍊組

Mail:nochingyo@beeway.com.tw 網址www.beeway.com.tw

TEL:886 4 24759277 FAX:886 4 24714839

We manufacture and design USB Flash Drive Disk / Memory Stick with accessory by combining advanced tech, stylish esthetics, health concept, craft, and fashion. Creativity is our best power.

beeway 發表在 痞客邦 PIXNET 留言(0) 人氣()