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目前日期文章:201208 (2)

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How to choose woodworking cutters?--part2

Selection of woodworking cutters

  1. identify the main technical parameters of the cutter
    Main parameters:outer diameter, machining thickness, and the center diameter.
    Other technical parameters: number of teeth, the direction of rotation, rotation speed, feed rate, clamping way, and cutter material.
  2. Choose the structure type of cutter
    According the request and characteristics of cutting object, and consideration from both the technical and economic aspects, select the whole cutters or welding cutters, assembly cutters, and combination cutter.
  3. The choice of the cutter rotation direction
    Cutter rotation direction is determined in accordance with the direction of rotation of the processing machinery spindle and the tool axis and the feed of the work piece relative position of the whole cutter, or assembling cutter, the inclination of the cutting blade relative to cutter radius determines the rotation of the cutter direction.
  4. Selection of cutting amount of end mills
    Cutting amount of end mills are including cutting speed, feed speed of work material, and depth of milling. Cutting speed depends on the rpm and the radius of the end mills .. feed rate depends on the requirements of cutting surface .. the surface roughness of work material largely depends on the feed rate per tooth during cutting process, too much feed will cause too rough surface of work piece; too small feed will cause burnt phenomenon on the surface, so the feed rate must be appropriate.
  5. Operation stability of end mills
    The stability of the cutter operation is to ensure that the basis of the machining accuracy and surface quality .. including two aspects: one is cutter excited vibration in machining due to external forces; the other is that cutter happens deformation by external forces.
  6. Safety of milling process
    The safety of the milling cutter includes the limitation of rotation speed, the limitation of chip thickness, height restrictions of molding cutter contour and the thickness of assembly cutter, and stretched limit.
    Cutting timber is characterized by high speed cutting, the rotation speed of the milling cutters mostly above 3000 rpm. High speed cutting for timber brings high productivity and smooth surface .., it also brings a series of security problems. Therefore, when the spindle speed up to 9000 rpm, besides the cutter which diameter smaller than 16mm, it should prohibit to use assembly cutters and do strict testing and inspection for welding cutter.
    It is necessary to limit chip thickness for avoiding overload of cutters. For end mills, the clamping method, cutter height, and thickness of work piece are with close relationship. When you ensure the thickness of work piece, mill diameter, and center diameter, the height of cutter reflects its own strength, stiffness, and capacity of cutting resistance. The height must be limited to ensure the safety of cutter usage.
    The design point of welding end mills is clamping problem. No matter the body is cylindrical or disc-type, the blade clamp form must be guaranteed to provide sufficient clamping force to resist rotation centrifugal force .
Reference sources – China Timber Net

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Bewise Inc., being a professional manufacturer of various cutting tools, is endeavoring to make excellent products. We are very experienced in custom-made tools, and good at solving customers’ problems when they meet difficulties and troubles. Through everlasting research and practices, we understand thoroughly about different materials of cutters and cutting tools.

 

BW's popular products for tool series including circular saw, carbide cutting tool, saw blade, wood saw blade, special tool,side milling cutter, …etc; For machines we have spiral tube cooler, cutter grinder, and the latest design and advanced powder forming machine / pelletizer. Bewise is a superior manufacturer and supplier of cutter production and machinery industry.

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超精密研磨拋光技術

超精密加工是指加工誤差小於0.01μm、表面粗糙度小於Ra0.02μm 的加工,又稱之為亞微米級加工。現在,超精密加工已進入納米級,稱之為納米加工。用於製造高精度高表面品質的零件,如大型積體電路的矽片,不僅要求極高的平面度,極小的表面粗糙度,而且要求表面無變質層、無劃傷。光學平晶、量塊、石英振子基片平面,除要求極高平面度、極小表面粗糙度外,還要求兩端面嚴格平行。

拋光研磨方法:

研磨方法 磨料 研磨工具 研磨液 研磨方式 加工機理 加工對象
超精密研磨 各種維細磨料 鑄鐵
玻璃
陶瓷
機油
煤油
水溶液
手工研磨
機械研磨
以磨料的機械作用為去除加工余量 各種形位及尺寸精度高的硬脆材料零件
超精密拋光 各種微細磨料、軟質磨料 軟質研具、瀝青等 過濾水或蒸餾水 透鏡、平鏡研磨機,帶修整輪,加工運動平穩 光學零件、石英振子、玻璃等
液中研磨
、拋光
微細磨料 合成樹脂 過濾水或蒸餾水 研磨運動在液體中進行 以磨料的機械作用為主,加上液體的冷卻,分散磨料作用 矽片等電子材料
化學研磨
、拋光
微細磨料 無紡織等 純水或水溶液 研磨壓力大研磨速度高 以磨料的機械作用去除化學反應生成物 矽等
軟質磨料 玻璃板 藍寶石基板

機械作用的超精密研磨:

超精密研磨種類 加工原理
機械研磨 依靠微細磨粒的機械作用對被加工表面進行微量去除,達到高精度的加工表面。
彈性發射加工 加工時使用聚氨脂球作加工頭,在高速旋轉的加工頭與被加工工件表面之間加上含有微細磨粒(0.1~0.01μm)的研磨液,並產生一定的壓力。通過高速旋轉的加工頭所產生的高速氣流及離心力,使磨粒衝擊或擦過工件表面,產生彈性破壞物質的原子結合,從而去除工件表面的材料。
浮動研磨 利用流體力學原理使拋光器與工件浮離,在拋光器的工件表面做出了若干楔槽,當拋光器高速旋轉時,由於油楔的動壓作用使工件或拋光器浮起,其間的磨粒就對工件表面進行拋光。
磁力研磨 磁力研磨是利用磁場將磁性磨料聚集在工件與磁極間之工作間隙內,這些聚集的磁性磨料在磁場的作用下形成一束撓性的磁力刷(magnetic brush),同時產生研磨壓力作用在工件表面上,再藉由工件的旋轉與軸向振動,使磁性磨粒與工件表面之間產生相對運動,而達到精密拋光的效果
電解磁力研磨 電流電壓的陽極接工件,陰極接工具,陰極接欲去除毛刺的工件部位。電解液由泵驅動後經陰極流過陽極工件的毛刺部位到達回流槽。工件以一定的速度旋轉,同時作軸向振動。在垂直於工件軸線及電力線的平面方向上加直流強磁場,在磁場中填入游離狀的磁性磨料,由磁磨料組成的“磨料刷”快速衝擊件表面,去除突起的毛刺和實現光整加工。
ELID研磨 電子零件等功能材料之進步是有目共睹的,但對於各種素材零件之加工精度要求則是愈來愈嚴格。其加工技巧之磨料加工技術的研磨、拋光方面,對於高效率、高精度、高品位、超精密、自動化等之期望也很高,滿足其要求的加工技術之一為ELID研磨法。 
ELID研磨法為金屬結合砂輪的削銳方法之一,利用電氣化學作用所產生之電解溶出現象,在研磨加工中也可以連續地進行削銳,以保持穩定的銳利度。

機械+化學作用的超精密研磨:

超精密研磨種類 加工原理
化學機械研磨(CMP) CMP 指化學機械研磨 (Chemical Mechanical Polishing),或稱為化學機械平坦化 (Chemical Mechanical Planarization)。研磨液會與基材產生化學反應,反應生成物以力作用方式去除。利用作用力促進化學反應。
機械化學拋光(MCP) 磨料和基材之間由於力作用產生化學反應,在表面形成反應生成物,以力作用方式去除。利用作用力促進化學反應。
超音波振動研磨 超音波震動工具頭的端面與工件表面保持一固定的間隙δ,並在其間充以微細磨粒工作液,當超音波振動工具以一定的頻率振動時,帶動微細磨粒衝擊工件表面,從而對工件表面進行研磨。

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碧威為專業的刀具,銑刀,鎢鋼,切削刀具製造商,致力於製造優秀的產品,在客製化刀具方面的經驗十分豐富,並擅於幫助客戶解決各式各樣之刀具切削面臨之問題,對各種刀具材質切削刀具鍍模都非常瞭解透徹,可選用常見的鎢鋼高速鋼或是近來詢問度極高的鑽石刀具

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機械類則有對刀具加工非常有幫助的冷風槍渦流管槍,並有最新設計和技術的粉末成型機

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