材料            名稱            降伏強度(MPa)    抗拉強度(MPa)    彈性係數(GPa)    比重(g/cm2)    比強度

鋁合金        2024            290                        480                        74                        2.75                        175
                    6061            340                        440                        73                        2.7                          163
                    7075            510                        560                        73                        2.8                          200


鎂合金        AZ31B        159                        248                        46                        1.77                       140

鈦合金        退火            880                        950                        105                      4.5                         211
Ti-6Al-4V    加工硬化    1260                      1390                      105                      4.5                         309

PE                低密度                                  6-17                       0.2                        0.92                  6.5-18.5
                    高密度                                   20-37                    1.2                       0.96                  20.8-38.5

PU               強化長纖維                           250                        20                       1.5                          167

Nylon          Zytel 70G431                         207                        20                        1.51                        137

玻璃纖維    基材Polyester                        206-344                103-310                1.5-2.1                57-172
碳纖維       平行纖維方向                       1860                      145                       1.55                        1200
                   垂直纖維方向                       65                          9.4                        1.55                           42

 

1.鋁合金: 相當優秀的底座材料,質輕,強度高。且剛性大代表施力時底座變形量微小
,力量傳遞較直接,能量損失較少。多數的曲棍球鞋及競速鞋都選用鋁合金
為底座材料。
鋁合金種類繁多,大致上分鑄造鋁合金及鍛造鋁合金,鑄造鋁合金強度不良
,約為鍛造鋁合金的3分之1。鍛造鋁合金較好的是6系列及7系列,製造程序
上先擠製成型,以銑床加工至最後尺寸,再作表面處理。

2.鎂合金: 重量比鋁合金輕,但比強度較鋁合金小。應用上,適合當隨身聽、手機、相
機的外殼,較不適合當直排輪鞋的底座,因強度較差。鎂合金質脆、較難成
型,製造成本較高。

3.鈦合金: 最棒的底座材料,比強度超高,剛性也非常大,耐腐蝕性比不銹鋼還好。因
為常溫時成型困難,擁有成型技術的廠商不多,所以價格超級昂貴。

4.PE: Polyethylene聚乙烯,塑膠袋材料,常用於299元的直排輪鞋底座,一跳就斷

5.PU: Poly urethan聚氨基甲酸乙酯。PU是常見的塑膠材料,從軟到硬都有,軟的
如直排輪鞋的輪子,操場的PU跑道。PU的強度在塑膠中算很好,耐磨性也很
好,價格便宜,製造容易,適合當休閒鞋的底座材料。

6.Nylon: 尼龍,工程塑膠的一種。較有名的是杜邦公司開發的Zytel,因歷史悠久,強
度不錯,也是休閒鞋良好的底座材料。

7.玻璃纖維:將玻璃融化後抽成細絲,編織成細線,最後再用熱固性塑膠膠結而成。因為
纖維的強度高,所以可以承受很大拉力。複合材料的強度和纖維排列方向有
很大的關係,且通常應用在受張力的地方。因底座大部分的受力是壓力,使
用複合材料不太吻合。另外,因複合材料製造過程麻煩,所以價格較貴。

8.碳纖維: 將PAN壓克力加熱至攝氏1500度以上,壓克力會碳化成細絲。再將此細纖維膠
結上一層熱固性塑膠(通常是epoxy環氧樹脂),就成為碳纖維複合材料。材料
的性質比玻璃纖維優良,價格也更貴。


Reference:
[1]William F.Smith,"Foundations of Materials Science and Engineering",
McGraw-Hill Book Company , Ch.7.
[2]S.Kalpakjian,"Manufacturing Engineering and Technology",
Addison-Wesley Publishing Company,3rd Edition.
[3]黃振賢,"機械材料",文京圖書有限公司(1995),第四章.

引用出處:

 

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