Cutting Reference Data for End Mills of Various Materials

Effective working solution depends on correct cutters, operation method, and technology.

Usual cutting conditions and major influence factors of CNC machines.

  Introduction Formula
Cutting Data V(m/min) Cutting speed is decided by the diameter of end mills and its rpm V=Cutting speed(m/min)
D=diameter(mm)
N=rpm of one min of end mills(min-1)
Feed speed F(mm/min) Feed speed is the speed of relative one of work piece. Feed rate per flute is important for multi-flute end mills. F=Feed speed per minute
z= number of flute
f= Feed volume per flute
Cutting depth a(mm) Cutting depth is the thickness of flute machining on work piece. We always increase cutting depth to achieve its efficiency, but it is too deep to short tool life. It’s better to give proper cutting depth per flute, don’t increase feed rate and cutting depth together. -- --
Feed rate per flue
f(mm/刃)
Once a flute to cut -- --
Cutting width b(mm) Vibration caused by diameter of end mill, width of work piece, flute numbers, and cutting width. -- --

Cutting Speed

Work Material High Speed Steel Carbide – rough cutting Carbide – fine cutting
Cast iron (soft) 32 50-60 120-150
Cast iron (hard) 24 30-60 75-100
Malleable cast iron 24 30-75 50-100
Steel (soft) 27 30-75 150
Steel (hard) 15 25 30
Aluminum alloy 150 95-300 300-1200
Yellow Steel (soft) 60 240 180
Yellow Steel (hard) 50 150 300
Bronze 50 75-150 150-240
Copper 50 150-240 240-300
Hard Rubber 60 240 450
Fiber 40 140 200

Feed volume each side

Working Material Face cutter End Mill Spiral flute flat
end mill
Side Cutter Milling Cutter Metal gap cutter
HSS Carbide HSS Carbide HSS Carbide HSS Carbide HSS Carbide HSS Carbide
Cast Iron HB150-180 0.4 0.5 0.2 0.25 0.32 0.4 0.23 0.3 0.13 0.15 0.10 0.13
HB180-220 0.32 0.4 0.18 0.2 0.25 0.32 0.18 0.25 0.1 0.13 0.08 0.1
HB220-300 0.28 0.3 0.15 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.15 0.18 0.08 0.1 0.08 0.08
Malleable cast iron, Cast iron 0.3 0.35 0.15 0.18 0.25 0.28 0.18 0.2 0.1 0.13 0.08 0.1
Carbon steel Cutting steel 0.3 0.4 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.32 0.18 0.18 0.23 0.13 0.08 0.1
Soft steel, Steel 0.25 0.35 0.13 0.18 0.20 0.28 0.15 0.2 0.08 0.1 0.08 0.1
Alloy Steel Annealing robust steel HB180-220 0.20 0.35 0.10 0.18 0.18 0.28 0.13 020 0.08 0.1 0.05 0.1
HB220-300 0.15 0.3 0.08 0.15 0.13 0.25 0.10 0.18 0.05 0.10 0.05 0.08
HB300-400 0.10 0.25 0.05 0.13 0.08 0.2 0.08 0.15 0.05 0.08 0.03 0.08
Stainless steel 0.15 0.25 0.08 0.13 0.13 0.20 0.10 0.15 0.05 0.08 0.05 0.08
Al-Mg Alloy 0.55 0.5 0.28 0.25 0.45 040 0.32 0.30 0.18 0.15 0.13 0.13
Brass, Bronze speedy cutting 0.55 0.5 0.28 0.25 0.45 0.4 0.32 0.3 0.18 0.15 0.13 0.13
ordinary 0.35 0.30 0.18 0.15 0.28 0.25 0.20 0.18 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.18
hard 0.23 0.25 0.13 0.13 0.18 0.2 0.15 0.15 0.08 0.08 0.05 0.08
Coppper 0.30 030 0.15 0.15 0.25 0.23 0.18 0.18 0.10 0.10 0.08 0.08
Plastics 0.32 0.38 0.18 0.18 0.25 0.30 0.20 0.23 0.10 0.13 0.08 0.10

 

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